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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Young male catkins - raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring[1].

Immature female cones - cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is sweet and syrupy[1]. The cones are about 5cm long[2]. Inner bark - raw or cooked[3]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread[1]. Usually harvested in the spring[3], it is an emergency food that is only used when all else fails. Seed - raw[1]. The seed is about 2 - 4mm long[4] and is too small and fiddly to be worthwhile unless you are desperate[1]. A refreshing tea, rich in vitamin C, can be made from the young shoot tips[1]. The trunk yields a gum, used for chewing[5][3].

Spruce oil, distilled from the leaves and twigs, is used in the food industry to flavour chewing gum, ice cream, soft drinks and sweets[5].

Unknown part

Flowers

Inner bark

Seedpod

Material uses

A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting[6]. The cultivar 'Denstat' has been recommended[6].

The leaves have been burnt to repel insects[3]. Various native North American Indian tribes made a string from the long roots of this species and used it to stitch the bark of their canoes and to make baskets etc[7][3]. The rotten, dried, finely powdered wood has been used as a baby powder and as a treatment for skin rashes[3]. The bark is a source of tannin[7]. A yellow-brown dye can be obtained from the rotten wood[3]. The pitch obtained from the trunk can be used as a waterproofing sealant in canoes[3].

Wood - straight-grained, resilient, light, soft, not strong. Used for construction and as a source of pulp for paper making[8][9][10][4]. The resonance of the wood, and its capacity to transmit vibrations, make it an ideal wood for guitars, violins, piano soundboards etc[7].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

White spruce was widely employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes, who valued it especially for treating chest complaints[3]. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism.

An infusion of the cones has been used in the treatment of urinary troubles[3]. The inner bark is pectoral[3]. It has been chewed, and an infusion drunk, in the treatment of TB, influenza, coughs and colds[3]. An infusion is also drunk in the treatment of rheumatism[3]. The inner bark has also been used as a poultice on sores and infected areas, and has also been used to bandage cuts[3]. The tea made from the young shoot tips has antiseptic properties[7]. It is used in the treatment of respiratory infections[3]. A decoction of the stems is used as a herbal steam bath in the treatment of rheumatism[3]. The gum is antiseptic, digestive, laxative, pectoral and salve[3]. A decoction has been used in the treatment of respiratory complaints[3]. The gum obtained from the trunk (probably pitch[K]) has been used as a salve on sores and cuts[3]. A poultice of the gum mixed with oil has been used to treat skin rashes, scabies, persistent scabs, growing boils etc, and has also been used on wounds where there is blood poisoning[3].

The rotten, dried, finely powdered wood has been used as a baby powder and as a treatment for skin rashes[3].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible[11]. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame[12]. A position in light shade is probably best[12]. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and should be stored in a cool place[11]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts.

Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 - 8cm long, August in a frame. Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring[12]. Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 - 10cm long, September/October in a cold frame. Takes 12 months[12].

Cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, early summer in a frame. Slow but sure.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Picea glauca. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must be given a deep moist soil[13]. Tolerates poor peaty soils[6]. Succeeds in wet cold and shallow soils but is not very wind-firm in shallow soils[14]. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6[6]. Dislikes shade[6]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[13]. Resists wind exposure to some degree[6].

A fast growing tree, especially when young with annual increases of up to 1 metre in height[15]. New growth takes place from April to July. Growth slows considerably as the trees grow older[15]. It is an important forestry tree in N. America and is also planted for timber in N. Europe. It is sometimes used as a 'Christmas tree', but is unsuited for this because its leaves quickly fall[7]. Seed production begins at approximately 20 years, though reliable crops make take twice that long[4]. Heavy crops are produced every 2 - 5 years[4]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[6]. In some upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning induced by acid rain[6]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[6]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[6]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[6].

The crushed leaves are quite aromatic. Some people find the smell distasteful saying that it is like skunks[7], whilst others say it has a pleasant smell like blackcurrants or mouldy grapefruit[15].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Picea glauca. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Picea glauca.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Picea glauca
Genus
Picea
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
15 x 5 meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.6 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  2. ? 2.02.1 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  3. ? 3.003.013.023.033.043.053.063.073.083.093.103.113.123.133.143.153.163.173.183.193.203.213.223.23 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.5 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  6. ? 6.006.016.026.036.046.056.066.076.086.096.106.116.12 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  14. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  16. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

"image:Picea glauca tree.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Picea glauca"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyPinaceae +
Belongs to genusPicea +
Functions asWindbreak +
Has common nameWhite Spruce +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Inner bark +, Seeds + and Seedpod +
Has edible useSeasoning +, Unknown use +, Gum + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone2 +
Has imagePicea glauca tree.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBaby care +, Dye +, Musical +, Pitch +, Repellent +, String +, Tannin +, Waterproofing + and Wood +
Has mature height15 +
Has mature width5 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiseptic +, Digestive +, Diuretic +, Laxative +, Pectoral +, Poultice +, Salve +, Skin + and TB +
Has primary imagePicea glauca tree.jpg +
Has search namepicea glauca + and x +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid + and Neutral +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teheavy clayture preferenceHeavy clay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy namePicea glauca +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +