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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Olive fruits are widely used, especially in the Mediterranean, as a relish and flavouring for foods. The fruit is usually pickled or cured with water, brine, oil, salt or lye[1][2][3][4][5]. They can also be dried in the sun and eaten without curing when they are called 'fachouilles'[5]. The cured fruits are eaten as a relish, stuffed with pimentos or almonds, or used in breads, soups, salads etc[5]. 'Olives schiacciate' are olives picked green, crushed, cured in oil and used as a salad[5]. The fruit contains 20 - 50µ vitamin D per 100g[6]. The fruit is up to 4cm long[7].

The seed is rich in an edible non-drying oil, this is used in salads and cooking and, because of its distinct flavour, is considered a condiment[3][8][9][4][10][5]. There are various grades of the oil, the finest (known as 'Extra Virgin') is produced by cold pressing the seeds without using heat or chemical solvents[11]. The seed of unpalatable varieties is normally used and this oil has the lowest percentage of acidity and therefore the best flavour[11]. Other grades of the oil come from seeds that are heated (which enables more oil to be expressed but has a deleterious effect on the quality) or from using chemical solvents on seed that has already been pressed for higher grades of oil. Olive oil is mono-unsaturated and regular consumption is thought to reduce the risk of circulatory diseases[11]. The seed contains albumen, it is the only seed known to do this[12]. Leaves[1]. No more details are given.

An edible manna is obtained from the tree[5].

Unknown part

Fruit

Leaves

Sap

Material uses

The non-drying oil obtained from the seed is also used for soap making, lighting and as a lubricant[13][8][4]. The oil is a good hair tonic and dandruff treatment[13].

Maroon and purple dyes are obtained from the whole fresh ripe fruits[14]. Blue and black dyes are obtained from the skins of fresh ripe fruits[14]. A yellow/green dye is obtained from the leaves[14]. Plants are used to stabilize dry dusty hillsides[7].

Wood - very hard, heavy, beautifully grained, takes a fine polish and is slightly fragrant. It is used in turnery and cabinet making, being much valued by woodworkers[3][12][8][15].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The oil from the pericarp is cholagogue, a nourishing demulcent, emollient and laxative[3][13][16]. Eating the oil reduces gastric secretions and is therefore of benefit to patients suffering from hyperacidity[11]. The oil is also used internally as a laxative and to treat peptic ulcers[3][11]. It is used externally to treat pruritis, the effects of stings or burns and as a vehicle for liniments[3][13]. Used with alcohol it is a good hair tonic and used with oil of rosemary it is a good treatment for dandruff[3][13]. The oil is also commonly used as a base for liniments and ointments[13].

The leaves are antiseptic, astringent, febrifuge and sedative[3][13]. A decoction is used in treating obstinate fevers, they also have a tranquillising effect on nervous tension and hypertension[3][11]. Experimentally, they have been shown to decrease blood sugar levels by 17 - 23%[16]. Externally, they are applied to abrasions[11]. The bark is astringent, bitter and febrifuge[3][16]. It is said to be a substitute for quinine in the treatment of malaria[16]. In warm countries the bark exudes a gum-like substance that has been used as a vulnerary[3].

The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Complete exhaustion' and 'Mental fatigue'[17].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow late winter in a shady position in a greenhouse[18]. Home produced seed should be given a period of cold stratification first[18]. Where possible, it is best to sow the seed as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse in the autumn. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, perhaps for their first 2 - 3 winters. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and give them some protection from winter cold for at least their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage[18].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Olea europaea. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Easily grown in a loamy soil[19] and tolerating infertile soils[7], it prefers a well-drained deep fertile soil[7]. A drought resistant plant once established, it succeeds in dry soils[7]. Requires a sunny position[2]. Tolerates salty air[20]. Plants are slow-growing and very long-lived[21].

The olive is very commonly cultivated in Mediterranean climates for its edible seed, there are many named varieties[22][5]. Trees can produce a crop when they are 6 years old and continue producing a commercial yield for the next 50 years[7] - many trees continue to give good yields for hundreds of years, even when their trunk is hollow[3]. They succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[23], though plants rarely produce fruit when grown in this country[3][24][7], preferring warm temperate regions with mild moist winters and hot dry summers[7]. Some reports say that trees often fruit in south-western England[23][20]. Generally, older trees are hardy to about -10°c[2][7]. They require the protection of a south facing wall when grown in the London area[23]. At least some cultivars are self-fertile[7]. Some cultivars have been selected mainly for their fruits whilst others have been selected for their oil[7]. 'Mission' is grown for its edible fruits. It is vigorous, prolific and very cold resistant[7]. 'Moraiolo' is grown for its oil, it is very hardy and strong-growing[7]. Flower production depends on a 12 - 15 week period of diurnally fluctuating temperatures with at least 2 months averaging below 10°c[7]. Pruning can encourage non-fruiting water-shoots[7]. Weighing down or arching the branches can encourage fruiting[7]. The plants fruit best on wood that is one year old so any pruning should take this into account[11]. An olive branch is a traditional symbol of peace[25], laurel leaves were used by the ancient Greeks to crown winners of the Olympic games[3].

Plants have male flowers and bisexual flowers[7].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Olea europaea. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Olea europaea.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Olea europaea
Genus
Olea
Family
Oleaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
10 x 8 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

"image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.003.013.023.033.043.053.063.073.083.093.103.113.123.133.143.153.16 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press ISBN 0-7012-0784-1 (1987-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.7 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  7. ? 7.007.017.027.037.047.057.067.077.087.097.107.117.127.137.147.157.167.177.187.19 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
  10. ? 10.010.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.611.711.811.9 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.513.613.713.8 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.4 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 85207 002 0 (1985-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  19. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. ()
  21. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  22. ? Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. ()
  23. ? 23.023.123.223.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  24. ? Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
  25. ? Niebuhr. A. D. Herbs of Greece. Herb Society of America. (1970-00-00)
  26. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)

"image:Olea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Olea europaea"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyOleaceae +
Belongs to genusOlea +
Functions asEarth stabiliser +
Has common nameOlive +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Fruit +, Leaves + and Sap +
Has edible useSeasoning +, Unknown use +, Manna + and Oil +
Has environmental toleranceDrought +
Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateSlow +
Has hardiness zone8 +
Has imageOlea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Hair care +, Oil + and Wood +
Has mature height10 +
Has mature width8 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntipruritic +, Antiseptic +, Astringent +, Bach +, Cholagogue +, Demulcent +, Emollient +, Febrifuge +, Hypoglycaemic +, Laxative + and Sedative +
Has primary imageOlea europaea, Koehler 1887.jpg +
Has search nameolea europaea + and x +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy nameOlea europaea +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +