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Uses

Toxic parts

There is a report that some of the constituents of the wax might be carcinogenic[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked. The fruit is about 4mm in diameter and contains a single large seed[2]. There is very little edible flesh and this is of poor quality[K]. The leaves and fruit are used as a food flavouring in soups etc[3][4][5]. A bay leaf substitute, imparting a delicate aroma and subtle flavour[5]. The herb is removed before the food is served[5].

Unknown part

Fruit

Material uses

A wax covering on the fruit is extracted by scalding the fruit with boiling water and immersing them for a few minutes, the wax floats to the surface and is then skimmed off. The fruit is then boiled in water to extract the wax from the pulp and once more the wax is skimmed off. It is then strained through a muslin cloth and can be used to make aromatic candles[6][7][8]. Candles made from this wax are quite brittle but are less greasy in warm weather[9]. They are slightly aromatic, with a pleasant balsamic odour[10], and do not smoke when put out, making them much more pleasant to use that wax or tallow candles[9]. The wax is also used in making soaps[9].

A green dye is obtained from the leaves[7].

The plant is very wind hardy and can be grown as an informal hedge[2].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The root bark is astringent and emetic in large doses[1]. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of fevers and externally as a wash for itchy skin[1].
There are no medicinal uses listed for Myrica pensylvanica.

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Nitrogen fixer

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Barely cover the seed and keep it moist. Stored seed germinates more freely if given a 3 month cold stratification and then sown in a cold frame. Germination is usually good[11]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in the cold frame for the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer[K].

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up and overwinter in a cold frame. Fair to good percentage[11]. Cuttings of mature wood in November/December in a frame. Layering in spring[2].

Division of suckers in the dormant season. Plant them out direct into their permanent positions.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Myrica pensylvanica. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a moist soil. Grows well in an open position in a well-drained soil in sun or light shade[2]. Thrives in any ordinary garden soil[12]. Prefers a lime-free loamy or peaty soil[13]. Does well in dry maritime sites[2].

Hardy to about -40°c[2]. Closely related to M. cerifera and perhaps no more than a hardier northern form of it[12], it has larger fruits than M. cerifera[14]. The two species hybridize in the wild where their ranges overlap[15]. Tolerant of salt spread on roads[2]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[2].

Many species in this genus have a symbiotic relationship with certain soil micro-organisms, these form nodules on the roots of the plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[2].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Myrica pensylvanica. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Myrica pensylvanica.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Myrica pensylvanica
Genus
Myrica
Family
Myricaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Salinity
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
3 x meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.11 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books ISBN 0-394-72811-4 (1979-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.2 Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-090-x (1975-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  13. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  14. ? Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)


Facts about "Myrica pensylvanica"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyMyricaceae +
Belongs to genusMyrica +
Functions asHedge + and Nitrogen fixer +
Has binomial nameMyrica pensylvanica +
Has common nameNorthern Bayberry +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Fruit +
Has edible useCondiment + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceSalinity +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has hardiness zone2 +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye + and Wax +
Has mature height3 +
Has salinity toleranceTolerant +
Has search namemyrica pensylvanica + and northern bayberry +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid + and Neutral +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameMyrica pensylvanica +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Myrica pensylvanica +, Myrica pensylvanica +, Myrica pensylvanica + and Myrica pensylvanica +