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Uses

Toxic parts

One report suggests that the raw fruit contains hallucinogens[1]. This fruit is frequently eaten in various parts of the world, there are even some named varieties, and no such effects have been mentioned elsewhere, nor observed by the writer when he has eaten the fruit. Possibly the unripe fruit was being referred to in the report, though even this would be surprising[K].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw[2][3][4]. A sweet taste, but the fruit is usually insipid[5][6]. It contains about 1.5% protein, 0.5% fat, 8% carbohydrate, 0.7% malic acid[7]. Fruits of the cultivar 'Pendulum' tried at Kew in July 1994 had a pleasant flavour[K]. A richer flavour develops if the fruit is dried, it can then be used as a raisin substitute. The fruit is up to 25mm long[8]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Per 100 g, the fruit is reported to contain 87.5 g water, 1.5 g protein, 0.49 g fat, 8.3 g carbohydrates, 1.4 g fiber, 0.9 g ash, 80 mg Ca, 40 mg P, 1.9 mg Fe, 174 IU vit. A, 9 ?g thiamine, 184 µg riboflavin, 0.8 mg nicotinic acid, and 13 mg ascorbic acid.

Young leaves and shoots - cooked[9][10]. A famine food, used when all else fails[11]. The leaf makes a good vegetable, it is rich in carotene and calcium[7]. Protein perparations from young mulberry leaves form an excellent supplement to protein-deficient diets[12]. The dry leaves contain 18 - 28.8% protein, 0.2 - 0.7% Magnesium, 0.8 - 13.6% soluble sugars, 0.6 - 1.4% phosphorus, 2 - 3.9% potassium, 1.4 - 2.4% calcium, 0.8 - 1.8% aluminium, 0.05 - 0.26% iron, 1.8 - 2.6% silica, and 0.3 - 0.56% sulphur[12]. The leaf also contains 10% tannin[7]. Inner bark - roasted and ground into a meal then used as a thickener in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread. A famine food, used when all else fails[7]. The tree is said to be a source of an edible manna[10].

Young shoots can be used as a tea substitute[10].

Fruit

Inner bark

Leaves

Sap

Unknown part

Tea

Material uses

A fibre is obtained from the bark of one-year old stems, it is used in weaving[3][13]. The stem bark is fibrous and is used in China and Europe for paper making[12].

The twigs are used as binding material and for making baskets[12]. A brown dye is obtained from the trunk[14]. The leaves contain 10% tannin[7]. This tree can be grown as a part of a shelterbelt. The cultivar 'Tartarica' has been especially mentioned[8], it is very suitable for northern latitudes and is much used as a sheltebelt in Russia[12]. The wood of the mulberry is a potentially excellent source of ethanol, with yields of up to 6% from sawdust treated with acid and then given four days incubation[12].

Wood - light to moderately heavy, hard, durable, fine and close-grained, though it shows a tendency to warp. Due to its elasticity and flexibility when steamed, it is valued for making sports equipment such as tennis rackets and cricket bats, being considered as good as ash (Fraxinus excelsior)[15][12]. It is also used for boat building, furniture, agricultural implements etc[16][17][4][12]. It furnishes a medium grade fuel wood[12].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The white mulberry has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, almost all parts of the plant are used in one way or another[15]. Recent research has shown improvements in elephantiasis when treated with leaf extract injections and in tetanus following oral doses of the sap mixed with sugar[15].

The leaves are antibacterial, astringent, diaphoretic, hypoglycaemic, odontalgic and ophthalmic[18][19][15]. They are taken internally in the treatment of colds, influenza, eye infections and nosebleeds[18][15]. An injected extract of the leaves can be used in the treatment of elephantiasis and purulent fistulae[18]. The leaves are collected after the first frosts of autumn and can be used fresh but are generally dried[15]. The stems are antirheumatic, antispasmodic, diuretic, hypotensive and pectoral[18][19][15]. They are used in the treatment of rheumatic pains and spasms, especially of the upper half of the body, high blood pressure[18]. A tincture of the bark is used to relieve toothache[3]. The branches are harvested in late spring or early summer and are dried for later use[15]. The fruit has a tonic effect on kidney energy[19][15]. It is used in the treatment of urinary incontinence, dizziness, tinnitus, insomnia due to anaemia, neurasthenia, hypertension, diabetes, premature greying of the hair and constipation in the elderly[18][15]. The root bark is antiasthmatic, antitussive, diuretic, expectorant, hypotensive and sedative[18][15]. It is used internally in the treatment of asthma, coughs, bronchitis, oedema, hypertension and diabetes[18][15]. The roots are harvested in the winter and dried for later use[15]. The bark is anthelmintic and purgative, it is used to expel tape worms[20].

Extracts of the plant have antibacterial and fungicidal activity[19].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

The seed germinates best if given 2 - 3 months cold stratification[21][22]. Sow the seed as soon as it is ripe if possible, otherwise in February in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in the first spring, though it sometimes takes another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Plant out in spring. A good percentage take, though they sometimes fail to thrive[23][24]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 25 - 30cm with a heel of 2 year old wood, autumn or early spring in a cold frame or a shady bed outside[23][24][8]. Bury the cuttings to threequarters of their depth.

Layering in autumn[8].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Morus alba. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in a variety of soils[12], though it prefers a warm well-drained loamy soil in a sunny position[25][6]. Plants are fairly wind-resistant[8], though the branches are often killed back when growing in strong maritime exposure[K]. At least some cultivars are drought resistant, the form 'Tatarica' has been especially mentioned[10].

The white mulberry is occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are a number of varieties[10] and sub-species varying greatly in the quality of their fruit. The form M. alba multicaulis. (Perretot.)Loud. [synonym M. multicaulis. Perretot.] has been specially mentioned for its fruit[9]. The cultivars 'Nana' and Fegyvernekiana' are dwarf forms only making shrub size[26]. The cultivar 'Pendulum' was seen growing at Kew in July 1994 with a heavy crop of tasty fruits, the first of which were just ripening[K]. Mulberries have brittle roots and so need to be handled with care when planting them out[15]. Any pruning should only be carried out in the winter when the plant is fully dormant because mulberries bleed badly when cut[15]. Ideally prune only badly placed branches and dead wood[15]. This is a good tree for growing grapes into[27]. The grapes are difficult to pick but always seem to be healthier and free from fungal diseases[28].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[8].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Morus alba. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Morus alba.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Morus alba
Genus
Morus
Family
Moraceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Morus-alba.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Morus-alba.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Morus-alba.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Morus-alba.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.5 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (1945-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.6 Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.58.68.78.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  12. ? 12.0012.0112.0212.0312.0412.0512.0612.0712.0812.0912.1012.11 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
  15. ? 15.0015.0115.0215.0315.0415.0515.0615.0715.0815.0915.1015.1115.1215.1315.1415.1515.1615.17 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.518.618.718.8 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.4 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  21. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  22. ? Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
  23. ? 23.023.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  24. ? 24.024.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  25. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  26. ? Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
  27. ? Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
  28. ? Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)

"image:Morus-alba.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Morus alba"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyMoraceae +
Belongs to genusMorus +
Functions asWindbreak +
Has common nameWhite Mulberry +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit +, Inner bark +, Leaves +, Sap + and Unknown part +
Has edible useUnknown use +, Manna + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf fertile +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone4 +
Has imageMorus-alba.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Fibre +, Tannin +, Wood + and Biomass +
Has mature height18 +
Has mature width10 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAnalgesic +, Anthelmintic +, Antiasthmatic +, Antibacterial +, Antirheumatic +, Antitussive +, Astringent +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Emollient +, Expectorant +, Hypoglycaemic +, Hypotensive +, Odontalgic +, Ophthalmic +, Pectoral +, Purgative +, Sedative + and Tonic +
Has primary imageMorus-alba.jpg +
Has search namemorus alba + and x +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy nameMorus alba +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +