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Uses

Toxic parts

In large quantities this plant, especially in the form of the extracted essential oil, can cause abortions so should not be used by pregnant women.

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - raw or cooked. A strong peppermint flavour, they are used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods[1][2][3]. This plant should not be used by pregnant women, see the notes above on toxicity.

An essential oil from the leaves and flowers is used as a flavouring in sweets, chewing gum, ice cream etc[4].

A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves[5][4].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

An essential oil is obtained from the whole plant. It is used medicinally and as a food flavouring[1][6][7].. It is also an ingredient of oral hygiene preparations, toiletries etc[8].

Peppermint leaves are used as an ingredient of pot-pourri[8]. They were formerly used as a strewing herb[9].

The plant repels insects, rats etc[9][10][11]. Rats and mice intensely dislike the smell of mint. The plant was therefore used in homes as a strewing herb and has also been spread in granaries to keep the rodents off the grain[12].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Black peppermint is a very important and commonly used herbal remedy, being employed by allopathic doctors as well as herbalists[13]. It is also widely used as a domestic remedy. This cultivar is considered to be stronger acting than white peppermint (Mentha x piperita officinalis). A tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive disorders (especially flatulence) and various minor ailments[14][8].

The herb is abortifacient, anodyne, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic, refrigerant, stomachic, tonic and vasodilator[15][13][5][16][8]. An infusion is used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, digestive problems, spastic colon etc[17]. Externally a lotion is applied to the skin to relieve pain and reduce sensitivity[17]. The leaves and stems can be used fresh or dried, they are harvested for drying in August as the flowers start to open[15]. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic and strongly antibacterial, though it is toxic in large doses[14][17]. When diluted it can be used as an inhalant and chest rub for respiratory infections[17].

The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is 'Cooling'[18].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Mentha species are very prone to hybridisation and so the seed cannot be relied on to breed true. Even without hybridisation, seedlings will not be uniform and so the content of medicinal oils etc will vary. When growing plants with a particular aroma it is best to propagate them by division[K]. Division can be easily carried out at almost any time of the year, though it is probably best done in the spring or autumn to allow the plant to establish more quickly. Virtually any part of the root is capable of growing into a new plant. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. However, for maximum increase it is possible to divide the roots up into sections no more than 3cm long and pot these up in light shade in a cold frame. They will quickly become established and can be planted out in the summer.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Mentha x piperita vulgaris. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils and situations so long as the soil is not too dry[19][20]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A sunny position is best for the production of essential oils, but plants also succeed in partial shade. Prefers a slightly acid soil[21].

A commonly grown herb[15], it is often cultivated commercially for its essential oil[22]. This is the black form of peppermint and it is said to produce a superior essential oil, making it the preferred choice as a food flavouring and for medicinal purposes. The oil is of better quality when the plant is grown on dry soils[23]. Most mints have fairly aggressive spreading roots and, unless you have the space to let them roam, they need to be restrained by some means such as planting them in containers that are buried in the soil[K]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. The flowers are very attractive to bees and butterflies[24]. A good companion for growing near cabbages and tomatoes, helping to keep them free of insect pests[11].

Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[25].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Mentha x piperita vulgaris. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Mentha x piperita vulgaris.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Mentha x piperita vulgaris
Genus
Mentha
Family
Labiatae
Imported References
Edible uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type











    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press ISBN 0-89815-041-8 ()
    3. ? 3.03.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.4 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Westwood. C. Aromatherapy - A guide for home use. Amberwood Publishing Ltd ISBN 0-9517723-0-9 (1993-00-00)
    19. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    21. ? Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-050-0 (1977-00-00)
    22. ? Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    23. ? Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
    24. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
    25. ? Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)


    Facts about "Mentha x piperita vulgaris"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyLabiatae +
    Belongs to genusMentha +
    Has binomial nameMentha x piperita vulgaris +
    Has common nameBlack Peppermint +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part + and Leaves +
    Has edible useCondiment +, Unknown use + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeInsects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useEssential +, Repellent + and Strewing +
    Has mature height0.45 +
    Has mature width1 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAbortifacient +, Anodyne +, Antiseptic +, Antispasmodic +, Aromatherapy +, Carminative +, Cholagogue +, Diaphoretic +, Refrigerant +, Stomachic +, Tonic + and Vasodilator +
    Has search namementha x piperita vulgaris + and black peppermint +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameMentha x piperita vulgaris +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris +, Mentha x piperita vulgaris + and Mentha x piperita vulgaris +