This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

Uses

Toxic parts

Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Young leaves and stems - raw or cooked[2][3][4][5][6][7]. Cooked and eaten as greens[8].

Leaves

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Lactuca canadensis.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air[9]. The sap contains 'lactucarium', which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties[10][11][2][12][13][14][15][16][17]. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets[9], nor is it addictive[18]. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc[17]. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower[17]. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted[9]. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used[10].

The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness[17] and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis[18][10]. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine[15].

The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts[16].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Lactuca canadensis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a light sandy loam[19]. Hybridizes in the wild with L. ludoviciana and the two species can sometimes be difficult to separate[20].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Lactuca canadensis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Lactuca canadensis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Lactuca canadensis
Genus
Lactuca
Family
Compositae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
?
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    3 x meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

    "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press ISBN 0-8623-0343-9 (1967-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    13. ? 13.013.1 Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants Studio Vista ISBN 0-289-70864-8 (1979-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-2624-6 (1993-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.2 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.4 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.2 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    20. ? Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J [Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas] Botanical Research Institute, Texas. (1999-00-00)
    21. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)
    22. ? Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)

    "image:Lactuca canadensis WILD LETTUCE (3362992724).jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.