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Uses

Toxic parts

All parts of the plant might be toxic[1][2].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[3]. A sweetish resinous flesh[4]. They can be crushed and used as a flavouring in soups and stews[5]. The cones are about 5mm in diameter[6]. About 10mm according to another report[7]. A tea is made from the fruit[8]. It is not very nice[8]. It is made from the young branchlets and the fruit according to one report[9].

Fruit

Unknown part

Tea

Material uses

An essential oil is obtained from the wood[10][11][12][13]. Composed of cedar camphor or cedrol[14], it is used in soaps, as an insecticide and moth repellent[13][14], a deodorant, in polishes, perfumery etc[1][15]. Chips of the wood have been used as moth repellents[16].

The leaves are used as an incense[11][14] and are also either burnt or crushed and then scattered around as an insect repellent[17][5]. The crushed bark can be used as a soft base in cradles[5]. The bark has also been cut into strips and used to make mats[5][16]. The red inner bark is a source of a red dye[16]. The bark of the tree is useful as tinder in starting fires Boy Scout style[16]. Some cultivars of this tree are suitable for ground cover when spaced about 90cm apart each way[18]. 'Tripartita' and 'Chamberlaynii' have been recommended[18]. A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting[6].

Wood - very durable, light, brittle, soft, easily worked, very fragrant, insect-resistant[10][11][4][19][20]. The wood does not shrink much on drying and weighs 30lb per cubic foot[20]. The reddish wood is highly prized for cabinet making[7], it is also used for fencing, the casing of lead pencils etc[10][11][4][19].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Pencil cedar leaves were much used medicinally by the native N. American Indians, and also in folk medicine by the white settlers, especially to treat chest complaints and skin problems such as venereal warts and other excrescences[16].

The leaves are anthelmintic, diuretic, rubefacient and stimulant[1][5]. A decoction has been used in the treatment of coughs and colds, general weakness and as a medicine for convalescents[5]. The berries are anthelmintic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue and mildly antiseptic[1][14][2][5]. They have been chewed as a treatment for mouth ulcers[14][5] or made into a tea to treat colds, rheumatism, worms etc[2][5]. The fresh young twigs are used as a diuretic[14]. An infusion has been used both internally and as a steam bath in the treatment of rheumatism[5]. The essential oil from the wood is an abortifacient, in some cases it has caused vomiting, convulsions, coma and death[1][14]. The plant is said to contain the anticancer compound podophyllotoxin[2].

The essential oil from the berries is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is 'Composing'[21].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy or Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover


Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[22][23]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[24]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[10].

Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/October in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[10][22].

Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months[22].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Juniperus virginiana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils if they are well drained, preferring a neutral or slightly alkaline soil[10][24] and succeeding on chalk[6]. Established plants are drought tolerant, succeeding in hot dry positions[6]. They are also fairly wind-resistant[6].

A very ornamental and hardy plant[10]. It is very slow growing[1] and apparently short-lived in Britain[25], though it is very long-lived in its native environment[7]. Another report says that plants live to a moderate age of 200 - 350 years in the wild[26]. Cultivated as a timber tree in some parts of C. and S. Europe[27] and used as a Christmas tree in parts of N. America[16], there are some named forms, selected for their ornamental value[6]. Closely related to J. scopulorum, it hybridizes with that species where their ranges overlap[7]. The main difference between the two species is that the fruits of this plant mature in one year whilst those of J. scopulorum take two years[7]. This species often hybridizes with other members of the genus. The crushed foliage has an aroma like soap or paint[25]. Plants are resistant to honey fungus[28]. In America this tree is a host of a gall-like rust that at certain stages in its life-cycle also attacks the leaves of apple trees[29].

Plants are usually dioecious, though trees with both male and female flowers are occasionally found[26]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Juniperus virginiana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Juniperus virginiana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Juniperus virginiana
Genus
Juniperus
Family
Cupressaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
20 x 8 meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Juniperus virginiana berries.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Juniperus virginiana berries.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Juniperus virginiana berries.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Juniperus virginiana berries.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.61.7 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-090-x (1975-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  5. ? 5.005.015.025.035.045.055.065.075.085.095.105.115.12 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.76.8 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.6 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.610.7 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.4 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.614.714.8 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.416.516.616.7 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  18. ? 18.018.118.2 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (1990-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.2 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.2 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Westwood. C. Aromatherapy - A guide for home use. Amberwood Publishing Ltd ISBN 0-9517723-0-9 (1993-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.122.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  23. ? Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  24. ? 24.024.124.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.1 Mitchell. A. F. Conifers in the British Isles. HMSO ISBN 0-11-710012-9 (1975-00-00)
  26. ? 26.026.1 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  27. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  28. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)
  29. ? Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
  30. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

"image:Juniperus virginiana berries.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Juniperus virginiana"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyCupressaceae +
Belongs to genusJuniperus +
Functions asGround cover + and Windbreak +
Has common namePencil Cedar +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit + and Unknown part +
Has edible useUnknown use + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateSlow +
Has hardiness zone4 +
Has imageJuniperus virginiana berries.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useEssential +, Incense +, Insecticide +, Repellent +, Tinder + and Wood +
Has mature height20 +
Has mature width8 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAbortifacient +, Anthelmintic +, Antiseptic +, Aromatherapy +, Cancer +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Emmenagogue +, Rubefacient + and Stimulant +
Has primary imageJuniperus virginiana berries.jpg +
Has search namejuniperus virginiana + and x +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy nameJuniperus virginiana +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy + and Soil surface +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +