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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2][3]. A thin dry flesh[4] with a resinous flavour[5][4]. The fruit is sweet and nutritious[5], it can also be dried or ground into a powder and mixed with cereal flours to be made into a bread[6].The cones are about 10mm in diameter, they take 2 years to mature[7].

Fruit

Material uses

The bark is employed as a tinder and is also made into a slow match[8][9]. The crushed bark was twisted into a rope, tied at intervals with yucca (Yucca species), and wrapped into a coil. The free end was set on fire and kept smouldering by blowing on it at intervals. Fire could be carried in this fashion for several hours[9]. The bark can be wound around a stick and used as a torch to provide light and carry fire to a new campsite[9].

The bark can be rubbed between the hands until it is soft and the fibres can then be woven into clothing[9]. The bark can also be rolled into rope, coiled and then sown to form sandal shoes[9]. The root fibre is used to make twined baskets[9]. The branches have been burnt as an incense and fumigant in the home[9]. The dried seeds have been used as beads or as the 'rattle' in rattles[8].

Wood - very close-grained, light, soft, exceedingly durable. It is easily worked and can be exquisitely finished. Because of its small size, however, it is mainly used for fencing, fuel[1][2][4][10].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Western juniper was quite widely employed as a medicinal herb by a number of native North American tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, especially those related to the kidneys and the skin[9]. It is rarely, if at all, used in modern herbalism.

The leaves are blood tonic and laxative[8]. A decoction is used in the treatment of constipation, coughs and colds[8]. An infusion of the leaves has been taken by pregnant women prior to giving birth in order to relax the muscles[9]. A poultice of the pounded moistened leaves has been applied to the jaw to treat swollen and sore gums and toothaches[9]. The berries are analgesic, blood tonic and diuretic[9]. A decoction is used to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps and to induce urination[9]. Externally, the decoction is used as a poultice on rheumatic joints[9]. The young twigs are antiseptic, blood tonic and febrifuge[9]. A decoction is used in the treatment of kidney problems, fevers, stomach aches, smallpox, influenza and haemorrhages[9]. The branches have been used in a sweat bath to ease rheumatism[9]. A poultice of the twigs has been used as a dressing on burns and as a drawing agent on boils or splinters[9]. A decoction has been used as an antiseptic wash on sores[9].

The leaves or young twigs have been burnt and the smoke inhaled to ease the pain of headaches[9].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[11][12]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[13]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[14].

Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/October in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[14][11].

Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months[11].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Juniperus occidentalis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils, including chalk, so long as they are well drained[14][13], preferring a neutral or slightly alkaline soil[13]. Established plants are drought tolerant, succeeding in hot dry positions[7].

Plants are slow-growing, though they can live for 3000 years in the wild[7][10]. They are much shorter-lived in cultivation[7], growing better in dry areas with hot summers[7]. Western Britain is generally to cool and wet for this species to thrive[7]. Plants are usually monoecious but are sometimes dioecious. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed and fruit is required. The fruit takes two summers to ripen[10].

Plants are resistant to honey fungus[15].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Juniperus occidentalis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Juniperus occidentalis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Juniperus occidentalis
Genus
Juniperus
Family
Cupressaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Juniperus occidentalis 8221.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Juniperus occidentalis 8221.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Juniperus occidentalis 8221.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Juniperus occidentalis 8221.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Whiting. A. F. Ethnobotany of the Hopi North Arizona Society of Science and Art (1939-00-00)
  9. ? 9.009.019.029.039.049.059.069.079.089.099.109.119.129.139.149.159.169.179.189.199.20 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  12. ? Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  15. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)
  16. ? Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press (1955-00-00)

"image:Juniperus occidentalis 8221.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Juniperus occidentalis"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyCupressaceae +
Belongs to genusJuniperus +
Has binomial nameJuniperus occidentalis +
Has common nameWestern Juniper +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit +
Has edible useUnknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateSlow +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageJuniperus occidentalis 8221.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBasketry +, Beads +, Fibre +, Fuel +, Incense +, Lighting +, Tinder + and Wood +
Has mature height18 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAnalgesic +, Antiseptic +, Birthing aid +, Blood tonic +, Diuretic +, Febrifuge +, Laxative +, Odontalgic + and Poultice +
Has primary imageJuniperus occidentalis 8221.jpg +
Has search namejuniperus occidentalis + and western juniper +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameJuniperus occidentalis +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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