The cultivar 'Pendula' makes a very good carpeting ground cover plant when grown as a cutting on its own roots. It can be planted up to 1.2 metres apart each way, but is fairly slow to cover the ground.Wood - strong, hard and dense, it polishes well, though it must be well dried and seasoned or else it warps badly. It is beautifully white, except at the centre of very old trees, and is highly regarded by cabinet makers though it must be well seasoned. The heartwood of mature trees is used for printing blocks, engravings, turnery etc. The wood makes a good fuel, burning well even when green.
The berries are violently emetic and purgative. They have been used in the treatment of dropsy and as a powder they have been used as an astringent to check bleeding. The berries are toxic, especially to children, and should not be used medicinally except under professional supervision. The root has been used as a diuretic, though there are more effective diuretics available.The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Hatred', 'Envy', 'Jealousy' and 'Suspicion'.
Cuttings of almost ripe wood with a heel, August in a shaded position in a cold frame. Leave for 12 months before potting up.Layering in October. Takes 2 years.
Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Ilex aquifolium. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.
Plants require a minimum July temperature of 12°c for good fruit production. They tolerate short periods in winter down to -15°c. Severe frosts can kill whole branches, especially if they are open to the sky. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. A very ornamental plant, there are many named varieties. Flowers and fruits are formed on wood of the previous year's growth. A good bee plant, the minute flowers are sweetly scented. The fruit is a valuable winter food source for birds. Resents root disturbance, especially as the plants get older. It is best to place the plants into their permanent positions as soon as possible, perhaps giving some winter protection for their first year or two[K]. Only move the plants in May or, preferably, in September. Plants are quite slow growing, even when in good soils and situations. Trees are usually dioecious but hermaphrodite forms are available. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required. Plants are capable of regenerating from the main stem both above and below ground level and, although the top may be killed in a fire, the plants will usually regrow from the base. Rabbits are particularly fond of this species and will quickly remove the bark.This species is notably resistant to honey fungus.
Problems, pests & diseases
Associations & Interactions
There are no interactions listed for Ilex aquifolium. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? to add it.
Polycultures & Guilds
There are no polycultures listed which include Ilex aquifolium.
This table shows all the data stored for this plant.
- Altmann. H. Poisonous Plants and Animals. Chatto and Windus ISBN 0-7011-2526-8 (1980-00-00)
- Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J [Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas] Botanical Research Institute, Texas. (1999-00-00)
- Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (1984-00-00)
- Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (1984-00-00)
- Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
- Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
- Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
- Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (1974-00-00)
- Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1984-00-00)
- Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
- Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (1990-00-00)
- Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
- Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
- Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
- Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-00-00)
- Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
- Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
- Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
- Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
- Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 85207 002 0 (1985-00-00)
- Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
- McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
- Brown. Shade Plants for Garden and Woodland. ()
- Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
- Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)
- Knight. F. P. Plants for Shade. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0-900629-78-9 (1980-00-00)
- Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
- Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
- Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
- International Bee Research Association. Garden Plants Valuable to Bees. International Bee Research Association. (1981-00-00)
- Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
- F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
- Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
"image:Ilex-aquifolium (Europaeische Stechpalme-1.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.