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Uses

Toxic parts

Skin contact with the plant causes dermatitis in sensitive people[1]. Hops dermatitis has long been recognized. Not only hands and face, but legs have suffered purpuric eruptions due to hop picking. Although only 1 in 3,000 workers is estimated to be treated, one in 30 are believed to suffer dermatitis[2]. Dislodged hairs from the plant can irritate the eyes[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Young leaves and young shoots - cooked[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. The flavour is unique and, to many tastes, delicious[10]. Young leaves can be eaten in salads[11][10]. Use before the end of May[12]. The leaves contain rutin[13].

The fleshy rhizomes are sometimes eaten[10]. A tea is made from the leaves and cones[10]. It has a gentle calming effect[4]. The dried flowering heads of female plants are used as a flavouring and preservative in beer[3][10]. They are also medicinal[3]. The flowering heads are sprinkled with bitter-tasting yellow translucent glands, which appear as a granular substance[4]. This substance prevents gram-negative bacteria from growing in the beer or wort[2]. Much of the hop's use as a flavouring and medicinal plant depends on the abundance of this powdery substance[4]. The seeds contain gamma-linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid that is said to have many important functions in the human body and is rarely found in plant sources[13].

The essential oil in the flowering heads is used as a flavouring in cereal beverages and mineral waters[2]. Extracts from the plant, and the oil, are used as flavouring in non-alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, candy, baked goods and puddings, with the highest average maximum use level of 0.072% reported for an extract used in baked goods[2].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

A fine brown dye is obtained from the leaves and flower heads[4][14][2].

An essential oil from the female fruiting heads is used in perfumery[15][16]. Average yields are 0.4 - 0.5%[17]. Extracts of the plant are used in Europe in skin creams and lotions for their alleged skin-softening properties[2].

A fibre is obtained from the stems[18]. Similar to hemp (Cannabis sativa)[14] but not as strong[19], it is used to make a coarse kind of cloth[4]. It is sometimes used for filler material in corrugated paper or board products, but is unsuited for corrugated paper because of low pulp yield and high chemical requirement, or for production of high-grade pulp for speciality paper[2]. The fibre is very durable but it is difficult to separate, the stems need to be soaked beforehand for a whole winter[4]. A paper can also be made from the fibre, the stems are harvested in the autumn, the leaves removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be removed. The fibre is cooked for 2 hours with lye and then hand pounded with mallets or ball milled for 2½ hours. The paper is brown in colour[20].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Hops have a long and proven history of herbal use, where they are employed mainly for their soothing, sedative, tonic and calming effect on the body and the mind. Their strongly bitter flavour largely accounts for their ability to strengthen and stimulate the digestion, increasing gastric and other secretions[21].

The female fruiting body is anodyne, antiseptic, antispasmodic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, stomachic and tonic[4][7][22][18][23][24][13]. Hops are widely used as a folk remedy to treat a wide range of complaints, including boils, bruises, calculus, cancer, cramps, cough, cystitis, debility, delirium, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, fever, fits, hysteria, inflammation, insomnia, jaundice, nerves, neuralgia, rheumatism, and worms[2]. The hairs on the fruits contain lupulin, a sedative and hypnotic drug[15][13]. When given to nursing mothers, lupulin increases the flow of milk - recent research has shown that it contains a related hormone that could account for this effect[6]. The decoction from the flower is said to remedy swellings and hardness of the uterus[2]. Hop flowers are much used as an infusion or can also be used to stuff pillows where the weight of the head will release the volatile oils[15]. The fruit is also applied externally as a poultice to ulcers, boils, painful swellings etc[4][13], it is said to remedy painful tumours[2]. The female flowering heads are harvested in the autumn and can be used fresh or dried[16]. Alcoholic extracts of hops in various dosage forms have been used clinically in treating numerous forms of leprosy, pulmonary tuberculosis, and acute bacterial dysentery, with varying degrees of success in China. The female fruiting body contains humulone and lupulone, these are highly bacteriostatic against gram-positive and acid-fast bacteria[17].

A cataplasm of the leaf is said to remedy cold tumours[2].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Climber

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a cold frame[9]. Germination is fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out in the summer or following spring.

Division in spring as new growth begins[11]. Very easy, you can plant the divisions straight out into their permanent positions if required[K].

Basal cuttings in March. Harvest the shoots when they are about 10 - 15cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Humulus lupulus. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Easily grown in a good garden soil in sun or semi-shade[11][25]. Prefers a deep rich loam[9] and a warm sheltered position[26]. Plants can succeed in dry shade if plenty of humus is incorporated into the soil, once established they are also somewhat drought tolerant[27]. Hops are reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of between 31 and 137cm, an annual temperature in the range of 5.6 to 21.3°C and a pH of 4.5 to 8.2[2].

Plants are very hardy tolerating temperatures down to about -20°c when dormant[26]. The young shoots in spring, however, can be damaged by any more than a mild frost[2]. A climbing plant, supporting itself by twining around the branches of other plants[28]. Hops are frequently cultivated, both commercially and on a domestic scale, in temperate zones for their seed heads which have many medicinal qualities and are also used as a flavouring and preservative in beer. There are many named varieties[10]. They grow best between the latitudes of 35 - 51°N and 34 - 43°S, with mean summer temperatures of 16 - 18°C[2]. Generally, for beer making, the unfertilized seed heads are preferred and so most male plants are weeded out[4]. Hops are fairly deep rooted, but with a network of shallow feeding roots. These horizontal feeding roots spread out at depth of 20 - 30 cm in the soil and give rise to fibrous roots in upper layers of soil[2]. The vertical roots develop downwards to a depth of about 150 cm with a spread of 183 - 244 cm and have no fibrous roots[2]. The bruised leaves are refreshingly aromatic whilst the flowers cast a pleasing scent[29]. A food plant for many caterpillars[30].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Humulus lupulus. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Humulus lupulus.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Humulus lupulus
Genus
Humulus
Family
Cannabidaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
6 x meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.112.122.132.142.152.162.172.18 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  4. ? 4.004.014.024.034.044.054.064.074.084.094.104.114.12 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber (1960-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. (1878-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.6 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.513.6 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.4 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  20. ? 20.020.1 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  24. ? 24.024.1 Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants Studio Vista ISBN 0-289-70864-8 (1979-00-00)
  25. ? De. Bray. L. The Wild Garden. ()
  26. ? 26.026.1 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)
  27. ? Chatto. B. The Dry Garden. Dent ISBN 0460045512 (1982-00-00)
  28. ? Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls Collins ISBN 0-00-219220-0 (1983-00-00)
  29. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  30. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)
  31. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-17
  32. ? Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)

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Facts about "Humulus lupulus"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyCannabidaceae +
Belongs to genusHumulus +
Has binomial nameHumulus lupulus +
Has common nameHop +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Leaves + and Root +
Has edible useDrink +, Unknown use +, Rutin + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceDrought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageChmiel zwyczajny - szyszka.JPG +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Essential +, Fibre + and Paper +
Has mature height6 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAnodyne +, Antibacterial +, Antiseptic +, Antispasmodic +, Diuretic +, Febrifuge +, Galactogogue +, Hypnotic +, Nervine +, Sedative +, Stomachic + and Tonic +
Has primary imageChmiel zwyczajny - szyszka.JPG +
Has search namehumulus lupulus + and hop +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameHumulus lupulus +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheClimber +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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