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Uses

Toxic parts

Poisonous to ruminants[1], it has also caused dermatitis in some people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Immature seed - usually pickled by steeping in salt and vinegar, and then used as a condiment for other foods[2][3][4][5].

The leaves are sometimes used as an adulterant for tea[2][6][5]. A manna is obtained from the tree[5]. No further details are given.

An edible oil similar to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil is obtained from the seed[7].

Sap

Unknown part

Material uses

A green dye is obtained from the leaves[7].

The bark is a source of tannin[8]. A tying material can be obtained from the wood[9] (does this mean the bark?). Very tolerant of extreme exposure and relatively fast growing, though often windshaped in exposed positions, it can be grown as a shelterbelt tree[10][11]. However, it is late coming into leaf and also one of the first trees to lose its leaves in the autumn and this makes it less suitable in a shelter belt.

Wood - hard, light, flexible, strong, resilient. A very valuable wood, it is much used for tool handles, oars, furniture, posts etc[8][9][7][12][13][4]. An excellent fuel, burning well even when green[9]. There is some doubt over how well the green wood burns with several people claiming that it needs to be properly seasoned[K].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The leaves are astringent, cathartic, diaphoretic, mildly diuretic, laxative and purgative[8][7][14][12][15][16][17]. The have been used as a laxative, making a mild substitute for senna pods[17]. The leaves should be gathered in June, well dried and stored in airtight containers[8].

The bark is antiperiodic, astringent and a bitter tonic[8][18]. Little used in modern herbalism, it is occasionally taken in the treatment of fevers[17].

The seeds, including their wings, have been used as a carminative[8]. They will store for 12 months if gathered when ripe[8].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Windbreak

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

The seed is best harvested green - as soon as it is fully developed but before it has fully dried on the tree - and can then be sown immediately in a cold frame[19]. It usually germinates in the spring[19]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame[11]. Approximately 5% of stored seed will germinate in the first year, the remainder germinating in the second year[20]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early summer of the following year.

If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds.

Cuttings of mature wood, placed in a sheltered outdoor bed in the winter, sometimes strike.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Fraxinus excelsior. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a deep loamy soil, even if it is on the heavy side[21][11]. Most members of this genus are gross feeders and require a rich soil[22][11]. Plants can succeed in very exposed positions, including maritime exposure, though they can become wind-shaped[10]. Thrives in alkaline soils[22] but not in shallow soils over chalk. Tolerates a pH as low as 4.5, but prefers a base-rich soil above 5.5[20]. Trees are surprisingly tolerant of seasonally water-logged soils[20]. Dislikes dryness at the roots, especially in late spring[20]. Very intolerant of shade, young plants fail to develop properly in such a position and often die.

Although the dormant plant is very cold-hardy, the young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. A fast growing tree, it is sometimes cultivated for its valuable timber. Very tolerant of cutting, ash was also at one time frequently coppiced for its wood[20]. However, modern use of plastics have reduced its economic values. There are many named varieties, selected for their ornamental value[22]. Trees have a light canopy and cast little shade[20]. A food plant for many insect species, there are 41 associated insect species[23][24]. Trees can be male, female, monoecious or hermaphrodite, they can also change sex from year to year[22]. Trees take 30 - 40 years to flower from seed[20]. The flowers are produced on one-year old wood[7].

This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[11].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Fraxinus excelsior. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Fraxinus excelsior.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Fraxinus excelsior
Genus
Fraxinus
Family
Oleaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Illustration Fraxinus excelsior0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (1984-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Ceres. Free for All. Thorsons Publishers ISBN 0-7225-0445-4 (1977-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (1985-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.58.68.78.8 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.2 Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.511.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.420.520.6 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
  21. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.122.222.322.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  23. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
  24. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)
  25. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

"image:Illustration Fraxinus excelsior0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Fraxinus excelsior"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyOleaceae +
Belongs to genusFraxinus +
Functions asWindbreak +
Has binomial nameFraxinus excelsior +
Has common nameAsh +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partSap +, Unknown part + and Seed +
Has edible useManna +, Oil +, Unknown use + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure + and High wind +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone4 +
Has imageIllustration Fraxinus excelsior0.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Fuel +, String +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height30 +
Has mature width20 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiperiodic +, Astringent +, Carminative +, Cathartic +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Laxative +, Purgative + and Tonic +
Has primary imageIllustration Fraxinus excelsior0.jpg +
Has search namefraxinus excelsior + and ash +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameFraxinus excelsior +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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