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Uses

Toxic parts

Large quantities of the seed may be toxic[1][2].

Edible uses

Notes

Young leaves - raw[3]. A very nice mild flavour, they go well in a mixed salad. However, the leaves quickly become tough so only the youngest should be used[2, 5, 12, K]. New growth is usually produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and one in mid-summer.

Seed - raw or cooked[4][5][6][7][3]. A pleasant sweet flavour, though rather small and fiddly[K]. The seed can also be dried and ground into a powder and then used with cereal flours when making bread, cakes etc[8]. The seed is rich in oil. The seed should not be eaten in large quantities because it contains a deleterious principle[1][9]. The seed contains 17 - 20% of an edible semi-drying oil[10][6][11][12]. This stores well without going rancid and is said to be equal in delicacy to olive oil[3]. It is used as a dressing for salads and also for cooking[9]. The seed residue is poisonous[13][12].

The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute[4][7].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed, it is used as a fuel for lighting, as a lubricant, for polishing wood etc[8][14][15][12][7]. The seed residue is poisonous[13][12].

The leaf buds harvested in the winter and dried on the twigs are used as toothpicks[16]. The leaves are gathered in autumn and used as a stuffing material for mattresses etc[17]. Wood - hard, heavy, strong, very durable[14][15]. It is not suitable for outdoor use[18] and is often attacked by a small beetle[10]. It has a wide range of applications, including furniture, flooring, turnery etc[19]. It makes a very good fuel[20][16], burning with a lot of heat[10], and yields a charcoal known as 'Carbo Ligni Pulveratus'[15].

The wood has often been used as a source of creosote, tar, methyl alcohol. acetic acid[21].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The bark is antacid, antipyretic, antiseptic, antitussive, expectorant, odontalgic[6][13].

A tar (or creosote), obtained by dry distillation of the branches, is stimulating and antiseptic[10]. It is used internally as a stimulating expectorant and externally as an application to various skin diseases[10][9]. The pure creosote has been used to give relief from toothache, but it should not be used without expert guidance[6].

The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Intolerance', 'Criticism' and 'Passing judgements'[22].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice. Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn[23]. The seedlings can be left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given some protection from spring frosts.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Fagus sylvatica. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives on a light or medium soil, doing well on chalk, but ill-adapted for a heavy wet soil[18][24]. Prefers a calcareous soil but succeeds in acid soils though it does not make such a fine tree in such a situation[23]. Succeeds in almost any soil and any pH, it is also very tolerant of a wide range of climatic conditions so long as there is sufficient rainfall[25]. Established trees are drought tolerant[23]. Very wind tolerant but dislikes salt[25]. Trees are shallow rooted and this might make them less wind resistant[23].

Trees have two growth periods a year, each of about 3 weeks in duration. The first is in spring around the end of April, the second is in summer, around the end of July. Trees are often slow growing and also can be very slow to establish after transplanting. However, in good conditions they are capable of growing up to a metre in a year. Young trees are very shade tolerant, but are subject to frost damage to their flowers and young leaves and so are best grown in a woodland position which will protect them[25]. An important food plant for many caterpillars, it has 64 species of associated insects[26]. Trees have a heavy canopy and cast a dense shade, very few other species can grow in a dense beech wood and on suitable soils it becomes the dominant species[23]. Very intolerant of coppicing, trees producing none or only very weak growth afterwards and this is soon smothered by other plants[23]. Plants are very tolerant of light pruning however and if this is carried out in late summer the plants will retain their dead leaves over winter[27]. There are many named forms selected for their ornamental value. Those forms with purple leaves prefer a position in full sun whilst forms with yellow leaves prefer some shade[28].

This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[25].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Fagus sylvatica. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Fagus sylvatica.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Fagus sylvatica
Genus
Fagus
Family
Fagaceae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (1984-00-00)
  2. ? Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (1984-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.610.7 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Ceres. Free for All. Thorsons Publishers ISBN 0-7225-0445-4 (1977-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (1985-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  18. ? 18.018.118.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 ? Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th edition. ()
  22. ? 22.022.1 Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. ISBN 85207 002 0 (1985-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.123.223.323.423.5 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
  24. ? 24.024.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.125.225.325.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  26. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
  27. ? Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (1974-00-00)
  28. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  29. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

"image:Illustration Fagus sylvatica0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Fagus sylvatica"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyFagaceae +
Belongs to genusFagus +
Functions asHedge +
Has binomial nameFagus sylvatica +
Has common nameBeech +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Leaves + and Seed +
Has edible useCoffee +, Unknown use + and Oil +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageIllustration Fagus sylvatica0.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useCharcoal +, Fuel +, Stuffing +, Dental care + and Wood +
Has mature height30 +
Has mature width15 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntacid +, Antipyretic +, Antiseptic +, Antitussive +, Bach +, Expectorant +, Odontalgic + and Skin +
Has primary imageIllustration Fagus sylvatica0.jpg +
Has search namefagus sylvatica + and beech +
Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameFagus sylvatica +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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