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Uses

Toxic parts

Poisonous. No further details.

Edible uses

Notes

An edible yellow dye is obtained from the fruit and seed[1][2][3][4]. Pink from the fruit case, orange from the seed[5]. These reports should be treated with some caution since many members of this genus are poisonous. One report suggests that the plant is a source of a manna[4], there are no further details.

Unknown part

Sap

Material uses

The whole plant yields a volatile oil that is used in soap making[6][1]. Other reports say that the oil is obtained from the seed[1][2][3][7]. It is possible that there are two oils, an essential oil from the plant and an oil from the seed[K].

A good yellow dye is obtained from the fleshy coating around the seeds[8]. This becomes green with the addition of alum, but unfortunately both colours are rather fugitive[8]. The baked and powdered berries are used to remove lice from the hair[9][10][11], they are also used as an insecticide[12]. The leaves are used[7]. Roots yield up to 4% gutta-percha, a non elastic rubber used as an electrical insulation and for making plastics[13].

Wood - very hard, easily split, fine-grained, not durable[8][9][6][1]. Used for spindles, skewers, knitting needles, toothpicks, carving etc[9][14][3]. A high quality charcoal is obtained from the wood, it is used by artists[1][13][3][7].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The bark is alterative, cholagogue, hepatic, laxative, stimulant and tonic[8][15]. The root bark is the part normally used, though bark from the stems is sometimes employed as a substitute[8]. In small doses it stimulates the appetite, in larger doses it irritates the intestines[8]. The bark is especially useful in the treatment of liver disorders which follow or accompany fevers[8].

The seeds are strongly emetic and purgative[8].

The fresh leaves, and the dried fruit and seeds, are used externally to treat scabies, lice (head, body or pubic), ticks and other skin parasites[16].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 8 - 12 weeks warm followed by 8 - 16 weeks cold stratification and can then be sown in a cold frame[17]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

One report says that the seed can be sown in an outdoors seedbed in early spring with good results[18]. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8cm long taken at a node or with a heel, July/August in a frame. Very easy[18]. Cuttings of mature wood, November in a frame[19].

Layering in July/August. Takes 14 months[18].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Euonymus europaeus. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it thrives in almost any soil, including chalk, and is particularly suited to dry shaded areas[20]. Prefers a well-drained loamy soil[21]. If cultivated for its latex it is best grown in a dry open position[13].

A very cold-hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c[22]. A very ornamental plant, there are many named varieties[23].

This species is often damaged by caterpillars during the flowering season[23]. It is a favoured home for blackfly, so should not be grown near broad beans[24].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Euonymus europaeus. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Euonymus europaeus.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Euonymus europaeus
Genus
Euonymus
Family
Celastraceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    6 x meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Illustration Euonymus europaea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Euonymus europaea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Illustration Euonymus europaea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Illustration Euonymus europaea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.6 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.5 Haywood. V. H. Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-217674-9 ()
    4. ? 4.04.14.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading ISBN 0704909820 (1986-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.58.68.78.88.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Stary. F. Poisonous Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-35666-3 (1983-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (1985-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden. Pitman Publishing ISBN 0-273-00098-5 (1976-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
    17. ? Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
    18. ? 18.018.118.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    19. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    21. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    22. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
    23. ? 23.023.123.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    24. ? ? The Plantsman. Vol. 3. 1981 - 1982. Royal Horticultural Society (1981-00-00)
    25. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

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    "image:Illustration Euonymus europaea0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Euonymus europaeus"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyCelastraceae +
    Belongs to genusEuonymus +
    Has binomial nameEuonymus europaeus +
    Has common nameSpindle Tree +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part + and Sap +
    Has edible useColouring + and Manna +
    Has fertility typeInsects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imageIllustration Euonymus europaea0.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useCharcoal +, Dye +, Insecticide +, Latex +, Oil +, Parasiticide + and Wood +
    Has mature height6 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAlterative +, Cholagogue +, Hepatic +, Laxative +, Purgative +, Stimulant + and Tonic +
    Has primary imageIllustration Euonymus europaea0.jpg +
    Has search nameeuonymus europaeus + and spindle tree +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameEuonymus europaeus +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus +, Euonymus europaeus + and Euonymus europaeus +