Uses

Toxic parts

Poisonous[1][2][3]. The plant is of extremely low or zero toxicity[4].

Edible uses

Notes

The flower buds are pickled and used as a substitute for capers[5][6][7][8]. They can also be added to salads[7]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

The tender green tops of the plant have been used like hops to give a bitter flavour to beer and to render it more intoxicating[5][7].

The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[9][5][10][7].

Unknown part

Flowers

Material uses

An excellent fibre is obtained from the bark, it is used in the manufacture of paper, cloth and nets[5][11][10]. It is not as strong as the fibre from the Spanish broom (Spartium junceum)[5]. The fibre is obtained from the root according to other reports[12][6]. The bark fibre is used to make paper, it is 2 - 9mm long[13]. The branches are harvested in late summer or autumn, the leaves removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 3 hours in lye then put in a ball mill for 3 hours. The paper is pale tan in colour[13].

The bark is a good source of tannin[5]. A yellow and a brown dye are obtained from the bark[6]. A yellow dye is obtained from the flowering stem[14]. A green dye is obtained from the leaves and young tops[5]. The branches are used to make baskets, brushes, brooms and besoms[5][15][12][6][16][10]. They are also sometimes used for thatching roofs and as substitutes for reeds in making fences or screens[5]. An essential oil from the flowers is used in perfumery[17]. Growing well on dry banks and on steep slopes, it is an effective sand binder and soil stabiliser[5][18][6]. Broom is one of the first plant to colonize sand dunes by the coast[5]. The plant attracts insects away from nearby plants[19]. The var. prostratus (= C. scoparius maritimus?[20]) makes a good fast growing ground cover plant to 30cm tall, though it needs weeding in its first year[21]. The cultivar 'Andreanus Prostratus' can also be used[20].

Wood - very hard, beautifully veined[5]. The plant seldom reaches sufficient size for its wood to be of much value, but larger specimens are valued by cabinet makers and for veneer[5].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Broom is a bitter narcotic herb that depresses the respiration and regulates heart action[22]. It acts upon the electrical conductivity of the heart, slowing and regulating the transmission of the impulses[23].

The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are cardiotonic, cathartic, diuretic, emetic and vasoconstrictor[5][12][24][6][25]. The seeds can also be used[5]. The plant is used internally in the treatment of heart complaints, and is especially used in conjunction with Convallaria majalis[22]. The plant is also strongly diuretic, stimulating urine production and thus countering fluid retention[23]. Since broom causes the muscles of the uterus to contract, it has been used to prevent blood loss after childbirth[23]. Use this herb with caution since large doses are likely to upset the stomach[5][24]. The composition of active ingredients in the plant is very changeable, this makes it rather unreliable medicinally and it is therefore rarely used[26]. This herb should not be prescribed to pregnant women or patients with high blood pressure[22]. Any treatment with this plant should only be carried out under expert supervision[26]. See also the notes above on toxicity.

The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are harvested in spring, generally in May[5]. They can be used fresh or dried[5][22]. They should not be stored for more than 12 months since the medicinally active ingredients break down[22].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover


Earth stabiliser


Nitrogen fixer

High nitrogen fixing species according to USDA plant database.

How much nitrogen is fixed by this plant in monoculture? USDA relative values correspond to these numerical ranges: None: 0 lb. N/acre/year; 0<Low<85; Medium: 85-160; High: >160.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame[27]. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours in warm water then cold stratify for 1 month and sow in a cold frame[27]. The seed usually germinates in 4 weeks at 20°c[28][29]. Seedlings should be potted up as soon as possible since plants quickly become intolerant of root disturbance[30]. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late summer if they have made sufficient growth, otherwise in late spring of the following year[K]. The seed has a long viability[30]. Seed can also be sown in situ as soon as it is ripe in the late summer and autumn[5].

Rooted cuttings

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 4 - 7 cm with a heel, August in a frame[18]. Produces roots in the spring[18]. Pot up as soon as possible[18]. Cuttings of mature wood, October/November in a frame.


Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils, preferring a fairly good but not rich soil[18]. Prefers a poor well-drained soil[19]. Succeeds in slightly acid, neutral and limy soils but dislikes shallow soils over chalk[31]. Plants are strongly calcifuge according to other reports and intolerant of a pH much above 6.5[32][30]. Prefers a sunny position but tolerates some shade[18][19][32]. Plants succeed in exposed conditions, and are very tolerant of maritime exposure[4, K]. Plants have a deep root system, they are very drought tolerant once established and grow well on dry banks[5][18]. Tolerates a smoky atmosphere, growing well in polluted areas[30].

Plants are hardy to about -20°c[33]. A number of named forms have been developed for their ornamental value[34]. New leaves are formed in April but these soon drop off the plant, photosynthesis being carried out by means of the green stems[30]. Very tolerant of cutting, it regenerates quickly from the base[30]. Plants are usually killed by fire but the seeds quickly germinate after the fire and rapidly become established[30]. A good bee plant and food plant for many caterpillars[35][36][6], it provides the food for the larvae of the green hairstreak butterfly[30]. Ants are attracted to the seeds, feeding on the juicy attachment that holds them to the pods and thus distributing the seed[30]. Dislikes root disturbance, especially when more than 20cm tall[18]. It is best to plant out into their permanent positions as early as possible.

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[31].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Cytisus scoparius. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Cytisus scoparius.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Cytisus scoparius
Genus
Cytisus
Family
Leguminosae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
  • Unknown part (Condiment)
  • Flowers (Unknown use)
  • Unknown part (Coffee)
Material uses
  • Unknown part (Repellent)
  • Unknown part (Broom)
  • Unknown part (Tannin)
  • Unknown part (Dye)
  • Unknown part (Wood)
  • Unknown part (Essential)
  • Unknown part (Fibre)
  • Unknown part (Paper)
  • Unknown part (Basketry)
Medicinal uses
  • Unknown part (Cathartic)
  • Unknown part (Diuretic)
  • Unknown part (Emetic)
  • Unknown part (Vasoconstrictor)
  • Unknown part (Cardiotonic)
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
2.4 x 1
Fertility
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.




References

  1. ? Altmann. H. Poisonous Plants and Animals. Chatto and Windus ISBN 0-7011-2526-8 (32202/01/01)
  2. ? Stary. F. Poisonous Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-35666-3 (32202/01/01)
  3. ? Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (32202/01/01)
  5. ? 5.005.015.025.035.045.055.065.075.085.095.105.115.125.135.145.155.165.175.185.195.205.215.22 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (32202/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.76.86.9 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (32202/01/01)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  11. ? 11.011.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (32202/01/01)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.4 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (32202/01/01)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (32202/01/01)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  15. ? 15.015.1 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (32202/01/01)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (32202/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.518.618.718.818.9 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.3 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (32202/01/01)
  20. ? 20.020.120.2 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (32202/01/01)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Royal Horticultural Society. Ground Cover Plants. Cassells. ISBN 0-304-31089-1 (32202/01/01)
  22. ? 22.022.122.222.322.422.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
  23. ? 23.023.123.223.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (32202/01/01)
  24. ? 24.024.124.2 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (32202/01/01)
  25. ? 25.025.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  26. ? 26.026.126.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (32202/01/01)
  27. ? 27.027.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (32202/01/01)
  28. ? Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
  29. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (32202/01/01)
  30. ? 30.030.130.230.330.430.530.630.730.8 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (32202/01/01)
  31. ? 31.031.131.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  32. ? 32.032.132.2 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)
  33. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (32202/01/01)
  34. ? Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (32202/01/01)
  35. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
  36. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (32202/01/01)



"image:Cytisus scoparius3.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Cytisus scoparius"RDF feed
Article is incompleteFalse +
Article requires citationsFalse +
Article requires cleanupFalse +
Belongs to familyLeguminosae +
Belongs to genusCytisus +
Can be grown from cutting typeHard wood + and Semi-ripe +
Functions asGround cover +, Earth stabiliser + and Nitrogen fixer +
Has binomial nameCytisus scoparius +
Has common nameBroom + and Scotch Broom +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Flowers +
Has edible useCoffee substitute +, Seasoning + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceDrought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageCytisus scoparius3.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBasketry +, Broom +, Dye +, Essential +, Fibre +, Paper +, Repellent +, Tannin + and Wood +
Has mature height2.4 +
Has mature width1 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useCardiotonic +, Cathartic +, Diuretic +, Emetic + and Vasoconstrictor +
Has primary imageCytisus scoparius3.jpg +
Has search namecytisus scoparius +, broom + and scotch broom +
Has seed requiring scarificationFalse +
Has seed requiring stratificationTrue +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameCytisus scoparius +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSoil surface +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is grown fromSeeds + and Cutting +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates air pollutionFalse +
Tolerates maritime exposureFalse +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilTrue +
Tolerates windFalse +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius +, Cytisus scoparius + and Cytisus scoparius +