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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Flower buds - raw or cooked[1][2]. A globe artichoke substitute[3]. The flower buds are a bit smaller than the globe artichoke and so are even more fiddly to use[K]. The buds are harvested just before the flowers open, they are then usually boiled before being eaten. Only the base of each bract is eaten, plus the 'heart' or base that the petals grow from [K]. The flavour is mild and pleasant and is felt by some people to be more delicate than the globe artichoke[K].

Stems - cooked and used as a celery substitute[4][5][1][6][7]. It is best to earth up the stems as they grow in order to blanch them and reduce their bitterness[8], these blanched stems can then be eaten cooked or in salads[2][9][3]. In Italy raw strips of the stems are dipped into olive oil[3]. We find these stems to be too bitter when eaten raw[K]. Young leaves - raw or cooked. Eaten as a salad by the ancient Romans[3]. Rather bitter[K]. Root - cooked like parsnips[5][2][3]. Tender, thick and fleshy, with an agreeable flavour[3].

The dried flowers are a rennet substitute, used for curdling plant milks[2][3].

Unknown part

Flowers

Leaves

Material uses

The plant is said to yield a good yellow dye[8], though the report does not say which part of the plant is used.

Unknown part

Dye

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The cardoon has become important as a medicinal herb in recent years following the discovery of cynarin. This bitter-tasting compound, which is found in the leaves, improves liver and gall bladder function, stimulates the secretion of digestive juices, especially bile, and lowers blood cholesterol levels[10][11]. The leaves are anticholesterolemic, antirheumatic, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic and lithontripic[12][13][14]. They are used internally in the treatment of chronic liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, hepatitis, arteriosclerosis and the early stages of late-onset diabetes[10][11]. The leaves are best harvested just before the plant flowers, and can be used fresh or dried[10].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse. Germination is usually quick and good, prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant them out into their permanent positions during the summer. It would be prudent to give the plants some winter protection in their first year.

The seed can also be sown in situ in April. Sow the seed 2cm deep, putting 2 or 3 seeds at each point that you want a plant[15]. Protect the seed from mice[15].

Division of suckers. This is best done in November and the suckers overwintered in a cold frame then planted out in April. Division can also be carried out in March/April with the divisions being planted out straight into their permanent positions, though the plants will be smaller in their first year.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Cynara cardunculus. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a light warm soil and an open position in full sun[16][17]. For best results, this plant requires plenty of moisture in the growing season and a good rich soil[18][5][1][16], though another report says that it is drought tolerant once established[19]. Plants grew very well with us in the hot and very dry summer of 1995, though they were looking very tatty by September[K]. Tolerates most soils including heavy clays of both acid and alkaline nature, especially when grown in heavier or more spartan soils[17]. Plants are reasonably wind resistant[200, K].

This species is hardy to about -10°c[20]. Plants are more likely to require protection from winter cold when they are grown in a heavy soil[19]. Wet winters can do more harm than cold ones[K]. At one time the cardoon was often grown for its edible stems but it has now fallen into virtual disuse[9]. There are some named varieties[3]. It is a very ornamental foliage plant and makes a very attractive feature in the garden. The leaves are long lasting in water and are often used in flower arrangements[21]. Recent taxonomic revisions (1999) have seen the globe artichoke being merged into this species. However, since from the gardener's point of view it is quite a distinctive plant, we have decided to leave it with its own entry in the database under Cynara scolymus[K].

Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[21].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Cynara cardunculus. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Cynara cardunculus.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Cynara cardunculus
Genus
Cynara
Family
Compositae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
2 x 1 meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Cynara cardunculus 008.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber (1960-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.73.8 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press ISBN 0-89815-041-8 ()
  6. ? 6.06.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. ()
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  15. ? 15.015.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. (1878-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  18. ? Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-050-0 (1977-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Chatto. B. The Dry Garden. Dent ISBN 0460045512 (1982-00-00)
  20. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)
  22. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)

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Facts about "Cynara cardunculus"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyCompositae +
Belongs to genusCynara +
Has binomial nameCynara cardunculus +
Has common nameCardoon +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Leaves +, Root + and Stem +
Has edible useCurdling agent + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeBees + and Lepidoptera +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has hardiness zone6 +
Has imageCynara cardunculus 008.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +
Has mature height2 +
Has mature width1 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAnticholesterolemic +, Cholagogue +, Digestive + and Diuretic +
Has primary imageCynara cardunculus 008.jpg +
Has search namecynara cardunculus + and cardoon +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameCynara cardunculus +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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