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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2]. Not very appetizing raw[9, K], it is normally used for making jams and preserves[3][4]. The fruit can be dried, ground, mixed with flour and used for making bread etc[5]. The fruit is about 1cm in diameter[6]. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed[K].

Young shoots - raw[7][8]. A pleasant nutty flavour[9], they are a good addition to the salad bowl[4]. A tea is made from the dried leaves[10][5][8][4], it is a china tea substitute. The roasted seeds are a coffee substitute[2][10][5][8].

The flowers are used in syrups and sweet puddings[4].

Unknown part

Flowers

Fruit

Leaves

Material uses

A good hedge plant, it is very tolerant of being cut and of neglect and is able to regenerate if cut back severely, it makes a good thorny stock-proof barrier[11] and resists very strong winds. It is often used in layered hedges[12][13]. The cultivar 'Stricta' has made a very good hedge 3.5 metres tall in an exposed maritime position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall[K]. Wood - very hard and tough, difficult to work. Used for tool handles etc. Valued in turning[14][5][15]. A good fuel, giving out a lot of heat[16].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Hawthorn is an extremely valuable medicinal herb. It is used mainly for treating disorders of the heart and circulation system, especially angina[17]. Western herbalists consider it a 'food for the heart', it increases the blood flow to the heart muscles and restores normal heart beat[17]. This effect is brought about by the presence of bioflavonoids in the fruit, these bioflavonoids are also strongly antioxidant, helping to prevent or reduce degeneration of the blood vessels[17].

The fruit is antispasmodic, cardiac, diuretic, sedative, tonic and vasodilator[16][3][10][5][18]. Both the fruits and flowers of hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic[19]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure[19], they are also used to treat a heart muscle weakened by age, for inflammation of the heart muscle, arteriosclerosis and for nervous heart problems[10]. Prolonged use is necessary for the treatment to be efficacious[19]. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture[19]. Hawthorn is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) to enhance poor memory, working by improving the blood supply to the brain[17]. The bark is astringent and has been used in the treatment of malaria and other fevers[14].

The roots are said to stimulate the arteries of the heart[20].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c[21]. It may still take another 18 months to germinate[22]. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[23]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process[K]. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring[23]. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Crataegus monogyna. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy[12][6]. Succeeds in all but the very poorest acid soils[11]. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[6]. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils[6]. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position[12][6]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution[6].

A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -18°c[24]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus and with C. laevigata in the wild[11][6]. There are many named forms selected for their ornamental value[6]. Seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year[K]. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones[25]. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted[12]. In heavier shade they quickly become drawn and leggy, eventually dying[11]. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many lepidoptera species[26], there are 149 insect species associated with this tree[27].

Plants are susceptible to fireblight[6].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Crataegus monogyna. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Crataegus monogyna.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Crataegus monogyna
Genus
Crataegus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
6 x 6 meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Crataegus monogyna 005.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Crataegus monogyna 005.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


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"image:Crataegus monogyna 005.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.7 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  6. ? 6.006.016.026.036.046.056.066.076.086.096.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.1 Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana ISBN 0-00-634436-4 (1976-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.4 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (1974-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.4 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  21. ? Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
  22. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  24. ? Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 (1990-00-00)
  25. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  26. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)
  27. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
  28. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

"image:Crataegus monogyna 005.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Crataegus monogyna"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyRosaceae +
Belongs to genusCrataegus +
Functions asHedge +
Has binomial nameCrataegus monogyna +
Has common nameHawthorn +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Fruit + and Leaves +
Has edible useCoffee +, Unknown use + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure +, High wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeMidges +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageCrataegus monogyna 005.JPG +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useFuel + and Wood +
Has mature height6 +
Has mature width6 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntispasmodic +, Astringent +, Cardiotonic +, Diuretic +, Hypotensive +, Sedative +, Tonic + and Vasodilator +
Has primary imageCrataegus monogyna 005.JPG +
Has search namecrataegus monogyna + and hawthorn +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameCrataegus monogyna +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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