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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[1][2][3][4]. A dry and mealy texture, they are not very appetizing[K]. The fruit can be used for jams and preserves[2]. The fruit pulp can be dried, ground into a meal and mixed with flour in making bread etc[5][4]. The fruit is about 1cm in diameter[6]. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed[K].

Young leaves and young shoots - raw[7][8]. A tasty nibble, they are nice in a salad[K]. Young leaves are a tea substitute[9][5][8][4].

The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[3][9][4].

Unknown part

Fruit

Leaves

Material uses

A good hedge plant, it is very tolerant of neglect and is able to regenerate if cut back severely, it makes a good thorny stock-proof barrier[10] and resists very strong winds. It can be used in layered hedges[11][12].

The plant is often used as a rootstock for several species of garden fruit such as the medlar (Mespilus germanica) and the pear (Pyrus communis sativa)[13].

Wood - very hard and tough but difficult to work[14][5][15]. It has a fine grain and takes a beautiful polish but is seldom large enough to be of great value[13]. It is used for tool handles and making small wooden articles etc[13][14][5][15]. The wood is valued in turning and makes an excellent fuel, giving out a lot of heat, more so even than oak wood[13]. Charcoal made from the wood is said to be able to melt pig iron without the aid of a blast[13].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Hawthorn is an extremely valuable medicinal herb. It is used mainly for treating disorders of the heart and circulation system, especially angina[16]. Western herbalists consider it a 'food for the heart', it increases the blood flow to the heart muscles and restores normal heart beat[16]. This effect is brought about by the presence of bioflavonoids in the fruit, these bioflavonoids are also strongly antioxidant, helping to prevent or reduce degeneration of the blood vessels[16].

The fruit is antispasmodic, cardiac, diuretic, sedative, tonic and vasodilator[13][2][9][5][17]. Both the fruits and flowers of hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic[18]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure[18], they are also used to treat a heart muscle weakened by age, for inflammation of the heart muscle, arteriosclerosis and for nervous heart problems[9]. Prolonged use is necessary for the treatment to be efficacious[18]. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture[18]. Hawthorn is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) to enhance poor memory, working by improving the blood supply to the brain[16]. The bark is astringent and has been used in the treatment of malaria and other fevers[14].

The roots are said to stimulate the arteries of the heart[19].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Rootstock

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c[20]. It may still take another 18 months to germinate[21]. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[22]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process[K]. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring[22]. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Crataegus laevigata. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy[11][6]. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[6]. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils[6]. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position[11][6]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution[6].. A true woodland species, it grows well in quite dense shade[23][10].

A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -18°c[24]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[6]. Closely allied to C. monogyna, it often hybridizes with that species in the wild when growing in its proximity[10]. There are many named forms selected for their ornamental value[6]. Seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year[K]. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones[25]. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted[11].

An important food plant for the larvae of many lepidoptera species[26].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Crataegus laevigata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Crataegus laevigata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Crataegus laevigata
Genus
Crataegus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
6 x 6 meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.2 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.7 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.76.86.9 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.5 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (1974-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.513.613.7 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.4 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.4 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  20. ? Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
  21. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.1 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)
  24. ? Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 (1990-00-00)
  25. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  26. ? Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan ISBN 0-330-26642-x (1982-00-00)

"image:Illustration Crataegus laevigata0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Crataegus laevigata"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyRosaceae +
Belongs to genusCrataegus +
Functions asHedge + and Rootstock +
Has binomial nameCrataegus laevigata +
Has common nameMidland Hawthorn +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Fruit + and Leaves +
Has edible useCoffee +, Unknown use + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeMidges +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageIllustration Crataegus laevigata0.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useCharcoal +, Fuel + and Wood +
Has mature height6 +
Has mature width6 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntispasmodic +, Astringent +, Cardiotonic +, Diuretic +, Hypotensive +, Sedative +, Tonic + and Vasodilator +
Has primary imageIllustration Crataegus laevigata0.jpg +
Has search namecrataegus laevigata + and midland hawthorn +
Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameCrataegus laevigata +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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