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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - ground into a powder and used with cereal flours in making cakes and breads[1][2].

An oleo-resin obtained from the leaves and stems is eaten raw or used as a commercial food flavouring in baked goods, ice cream, chewing gum etc[3][4][1][2][5].

The plant is said to yield a sweet manna[2].This report is probably referring to the oleo-resin mentioned above[K].

Unknown part

Sap

Material uses

The glandular hairs on the leaves yield the oleo-resin 'ladanum', used medicinally and in soaps, perfumery, fumigation etc[6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. This resin is an acceptable substitute for ambergris (which is obtained from the sperm whale) and so is important in perfume manufacture[5]. The resin is collected by dragging a type of rake through the plant, the resin adhering to the teeth of the rake, or by boiling the twigs and skimming off the resin[10][11]. Most resin is produced at the hottest time of the year[8].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Labdanum is an aromatic, expectorant, stimulant herb that controls bleeding and has antibiotic effects[6][5]. It is used internally in the treatment of catarrh and diarrhoea[5] and as an emmenagogue[6]. The leaves are harvested in late spring and early summer and can be dried for later use, or the resin extracted from them[5].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - gather when ripe and store dry[13]. Surface sow in late winter in a greenhouse[14]. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 4 weeks at 20°c[14]. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle into individual pots. Grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out the in the following spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts[14]. The seed stores for at least 3 years[K].

Cuttings of softish to half-ripe wood, 8cm long with a heel or at a node, June/August in a frame. Roots are formed within 3 weeks[13]. High percentage[13]. Cuttings of almost mature wood, 8 - 12cm with a heel or at a node, September/October in a frame. High percentage[13]. Lift and pot up in the spring, plant out when a good root system has formed[13].

Layering in spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Cistus ladanifer. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Requires a sunny position in a well-drained light sandy soil[7][15], growing well in poor soils[5]. Withstands drought once it is established[7][16]. Plants are fairly wind resistant[166, K], tolerating maritime exposure[17]. Resents root disturbance[7].

Plants are hardy to about -10c[18], but they require protection in severe winters[7]. Plants are somewhat hardier when grown in poor soils[15]. Individual flowers only last one day but there is a long succession of them[7][19]. Labdanum dislikes pruning, especially as it gets older and so any formative work should be restricted to removing dead, straggly or damaged growths[5]. The plant also resents root disturbance[19]. Plants should be pot grown and then planted out in their final positions whilst still small. Sometimes cultivated for its gum, which is known as 'Labdanum', this is exuded in such quantity in hot weather that the plant becomes very sticky[6][9]. The leaves have glandular hairs which produce an aromatic gum. The sweet balsamic smell is most apparent in the summer in the early morning[20]. A very ornamental plant, it is very free-flowering and fast growing[21]. There are a number of named forms developed for their ornamental value[15]. An excellent nurse plant for sheltering young seedlings[21]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[22][19]. The flowers are very attractive to bees[23].

Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[19].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Cistus ladanifer. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Cistus ladanifer.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Cistus ladanifer
Genus
Cistus
Family
Cistaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
7
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Cistus ladanifer RJB.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.75.85.9 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.7 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.2 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press ISBN 0-7012-0784-1 (1987-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.4 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.2 Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
  16. ? Chatto. B. The Dry Garden. Dent ISBN 0460045512 (1982-00-00)
  17. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
  18. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  20. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
  22. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)
  23. ? International Bee Research Association. Garden Plants Valuable to Bees. International Bee Research Association. (1981-00-00)

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