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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw[1][2][3]. A mealy pleasant taste[4]. Small and insipidly sweet[5][6]. Of little value[7]. The fruit is about 10mm in diameter[8] with a single large seed[K].

Seed - raw or cooked[2][9][10][11].

An oil is obtained from the seed[2][11].

Fruit

Unknown part

Oil

Material uses

A yellow dye is obtained from the bark[3].

A fatty oil is obtained from the seed[12]. No more information is given.

Wood - very tough, pliable, durable[9][10][13]. Widely used by turners[2]. Used for the handles of agricultural implements[14]. The flexible thin shoots are used as walking sticks[10]. An excellent fuel[15].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The leaves and fruit are astringent, lenitive and stomachic[2][16]. The leaves are gathered in early summer and dried for later use[2]. The fruit, particularly before it is fully ripe, is considered to be more effective medicinally[16]. A decoction of both leaves and fruit is used in the treatment of amenorrhoea, heavy menstrual and intermenstrual bleeding and colic[17][18]. The decoction can also be used to astringe the mucous membranes in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and peptic ulcers[16].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[8]. Stored seed is best given 2 - 3 months cold stratification and then sown February/March in a greenhouse[19][8]. Germination rates are usually good, though the stored seed might take 12 months or more to germinate. The seed can be stored for up to 5 years[20]. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. The leaves of seedlings often have a lot of white patches without chlorophyll, this is normal and older plants produce normal green leaves. Grow the seedlings on in a cold frame for their first winter, and plant them out in the following late spring or early summer[K]. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Celtis australis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in any reasonably good soil, preferring a good fertile well-drained loamy soil[21][22][8]. Succeeds on dry gravels and on sandy soils[8]. The trees have deep spreading roots[2] and are very drought resistant once established[4][8].

This species requires mild winters if it is to succeed[1]. Trees prefer hotter summers and more sunlight than are normally experienced in Britain, they often do not fully ripen their wood when growing in this country and they are then very subject to die-back in winter[21][22][8]. A hardier form, from seed collected in the Caucasus, is in cultivation in Britain[22]. The fruit and the seed are sometimes sold in local markets in the Balkans[9][6]. This plant is said to be the lotus fruit of the ancients[6]. It is mentioned in the story of Odysseus returning from Troy and the story relates that if a person should eat the fruit they will never leave that area. Coppices well[15]. A good shade tree[8]. Trees can be very long-lived, perhaps to 1000 years[8].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[8].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Celtis australis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Celtis australis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Celtis australis
Genus
Celtis
Family
Ulmaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.62.72.82.9 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.2 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  8. ? 8.008.018.028.038.048.058.068.078.088.098.108.11 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.2 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Medicinal Plants of Nepal Dept. of Medicinal Plants. Nepal. (1993-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (1945-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-527-6 (2002-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1972-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  19. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  20. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.122.222.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)

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