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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked[1][2][3][4]. A delicious sweet taste but the thick, hard shell makes extraction very difficult[5][6][7]. The kernel is quite small considering the size of the nut[7]. Even squirrels leave the seed to accumulate under trees[8][6]. The seed can be up to 6cm long[9]. The seed ripens in late autumn and, when stored in its shell in a cool place, will keep for at least 6 months[K]. Sap - used as a drink. Tapped in spring, it has a sweet flavour[3].

Material uses

A black dye is obtained by boiling the bark in a vinegar solution[9].

A beige dye is extracted from the leaves and twigs, cream of tartar is required as a mordant[7]. A yellow dye is obtained from the bark when alum is used as a mordant[7]. The inner bark has been used to finish baskets and to make chair bottoms[10]. The leaves have been scattered about to repel insects[10].

Wood - close-grained, tough, elastic, very heavy, hard[11][12][13][9]. It weighs 51lb per cubic foot[13]. The wood has excellent bending qualities and can withstand compression better than most other woods[9]. One of the best hickory woods, it is an important commercial timber and is used for vehicle parts, tool handles, fuel etc[11][14][12][13][9].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The inner bark is astringent and detergent[10]. It has been used as a dressing for cuts and has also been chewed to treat sore mouths[10].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - requires a period of cold stratification. It is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[15]. Stored seed should be kept moist (but not wet) prior to sowing and should be sown in a cold frame as soon as possible[15]. Where possible, sow 1 or 2 seeds only in each deep pot and thin to the best seedling. If you need to transplant the seedlings, then do this as soon as they are large enough to handle, once more using deep pots to accommodate the tap root. Put the plants into their permanent positions as soon as possible, preferably in their first summer, and give them some protection from the cold for at least the first winter[78, K]. Seed can also be sown in situ so long as protection is given from mice etc and the seed is given some protection from cold[16] (a plastic bottle with the top and bottom removed and a wire mesh top fitted to keep the mice out is ideal)

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Carya tomentosa. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a deep moisture-retentive loam in a sunny sheltered position, requiring a good summer for best development[1][14][17][16]. Succeeds in poor soils[14] and in drier soils than many other members of the genus[16]. Generally a slow growing tree[16] though it is fast when young[18]. Trees respond well to coppicing[18].

A very ornamental and long-lived tree[1][13], it is quite successful in Britain[17] and has been planted on an experimental scale for its timber in Germany[19]. Most species in this genus have quite a wide range of distribution and, in order to find trees more suited to this country, seed from the most appropriate provenances should be sought[17]. Most trees growing in Britain at present tend to only produce good seed after hot summers[17]. Trees in the wild commence fruiting when about 20 years old, with an optimum seed bearing age from 40 - 150 years, though they often live for 300 - 500 years[9]. Trees are self-fertile but larger crops of better quality seeds are produced if cross-pollination takes place[9]. Plants are strongly tap-rooted and should be planted in their permanent positions as soon as possible[1][17]. Sowing in situ would be the best method so long as the seed could be protected from mice[1][16]. Trees are late coming into leaf (usually late May to June)[17], but lose their leaves later in the autumn than other Carya species229]. During this time they cast a heavy shade. These factors combine to make the trees eminently suitable for a mixed woodland planting with shrubs and other trees beneath them[17].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[16].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Carya tomentosa. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Carya tomentosa.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Carya tomentosa
Genus
Carya
Family
Juglandaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Carya tomentosa nuts USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Carya tomentosa nuts USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Carya tomentosa nuts USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Carya tomentosa nuts USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences (1978-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (1989-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. ISBN 0802707699 (1984-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.79.8 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.2 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.4 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.416.516.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.417.517.6 ? The Plantsman. Vol. 9. 1986 - 1987. Royal Horticultural Society (1986-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press ISBN 0-292-78958-3 (1987-00-00)
    19. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
    20. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-11

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