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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - raw[1][2]. When eaten they first of all impart a viscid sweetness, followed by a strong penetrating taste of a saline nature[3]. They are very rich in vitamins and minerals and are similar to Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion) in nutritional value[4].

Fresh petals are chopped and added to salads[5]. The dried petals have a more concentrated flavour and are used as a seasoning in soups, cakes etc[5]. High in vitamins A and C[6]. An edible yellow dye is obtained from the petals[7]. A saffron substitute[2], it is used to colour and flavour rice, soups etc[8][1][9][10]. It is also used as a hair rinse, adding golden tints to brown or auburn hair[11]. A tea is made from the petals and flowers, that made from the petals is less bitter[5].

There is no record of the seed being edible, but it contains up to 37% protein and 46% oil[6].

Unknown part

Flowers

Leaves

Material uses

The growing plant acts as an insect deterrent[1], it reduces the soil eelworm population[12].

The flowers are used cosmetically. They can be used in skin lotions and when added to hair shampoos will lighten the hair colour[13]. The flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'Quick Return' compost activator[14]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K]. A yellow dye is obtained from the boiled flowers[8][3][7]. An essential oil is obtained from the plant[15]. It is used rather sparingly, in view of the difficulty in obtaining it, in perfumes that have a rather sharp tang[15].

The flowers close when wet weather is likely to occur and they can therefore be used as a rough means of weather forecasting[15].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Pot marigold is one of the best known and versatile herbs in Western herbal medicine and is also a popular domestic remedy[3][16]. It is, above all, a remedy for skin problems and is applied externally to bites and stings, sprains, wounds, sore eyes, varicose veins etc[3][16]. It is also a cleansing and detoxifying herb and is taken internally in treating fevers and chronic infections[3][16]. Only the common deep-orange flowered variety is considered to be of medicinal value[3].

The whole plant, but especially the flowers and the leaves, is antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aperient, astringent, cholagogue, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, skin, stimulant and vulnerary[3][15][17][2][7][18][11]. The leaves can be used fresh or dried, they are best harvested in the morning of a fine sunny day just after the dew has dried from them[3]. The flowers are also used fresh or dried, for drying they are harvested when fully open and need to be dried quickly in the shade[3]. A tea of the petals tones up the circulation and, taken regularly, can ease varicose veins[11]. An application of the crushed stems to corns and warts will soon render them easily removable[15].

The leaves, blossoms and buds are used to make a homeopathic remedy[19]. It is used internally in order to speed the healing of wounds[19].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow in situ from spring to early summer and again in September. The seed germinates best in darkness and usually within 1 - 2 weeks at 21°c[20]. The plant often self-sows freely.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Calendula officinalis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any well-drained soil[21][22], though it prefers a good loam and requires a sunny or at least partially sunny position[3][23][21][22]. Plants flower best when they are grown in a poor soil[24]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 8.3.

The pot marigold is a very ornamental plant that is commonly grown in the flower garden, and occasionally as a culinary herb, there are some named varieties[5]. When well-sited it usually self-sows freely and will maintain itself if allowed[25][3]. The flowers are sensitive to variations in temperature and dampness, closing when it is dark and when rain is expected[15][13]. All parts of the plant are pungently scented[26]. The growing plant attracts hoverflies to the garden, the young of which are fairly efficient eaters of aphids[12][11]. The flowers are attractive to bees[24]. Marigolds are good companion plants, they grow well with tomatoes[1].

Cucumber mosaic disease and powdery mildew can cause problems with this plant[27].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Calendula officinalis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Calendula officinalis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Calendula officinalis
Genus
Calendula
Family
Compositae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.5 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    3. ? 3.003.013.023.033.043.053.063.073.083.093.103.113.123.13 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press ISBN 0-89815-041-8 ()
    10. ? 10.010.1 Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber (1960-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.2 Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Bruce. M. E. Commonsense Compost Making. Faber ISBN 0-571-09990-4 (1977-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.515.615.7 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    19. ? 19.019.119.2 Castro. M. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. Macmillan. London. ISBN 0-333-55581-3 (1990-00-00)
    20. ? Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 3. Thompson and Morgan. (1989-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.121.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.1 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
    23. ? Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden. Pitman Publishing ISBN 0-273-00098-5 (1976-00-00)
    24. ? 24.024.1 International Bee Research Association. Garden Plants Valuable to Bees. International Bee Research Association. (1981-00-00)
    25. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    26. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    27. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)

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    "image:Illustration Calendula officinalis0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Calendula officinalis"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyCompositae +
    Belongs to genusCalendula +
    Has common namePot Marigold +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers + and Leaves +
    Has edible useColouring +, Unknown use + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeBee +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has hardiness zone6 +
    Has imageIllustration Calendula officinalis0.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typeAnnual +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useCompost +, Cosmetic +, Dye +, Essential +, Repellent + and Weather forecasting +
    Has mature height0.6 +
    Has mature width0.5 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntiphlogistic +, Antiseptic +, Antispasmodic +, Aperient +, Astringent +, Cholagogue +, Diaphoretic +, Emmenagogue +, Homeopathy +, Skin +, Stimulant +, Vulnerary + and Warts +
    Has primary imageIllustration Calendula officinalis0.jpg +
    Has search namecalendula officinalis + and x +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
    Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
    Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomy nameCalendula officinalis +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +