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Uses

Toxic parts

All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the leaves and bark[1].

Edible uses

Notes

The leaves have been used in France as a substitute for hops (Humulus lupulus) in making beer[2]. They cannot be very wholesome, and would probably prove to be injurious[3].

Unknown part

Material uses

Box makes an excellent hedge from 45cm to 4.5 metres tall according to the variety grown[4][5]. It is quite slow growing but very tolerant of cutting and is often used in topiary, where the hedge is trimmed into different forms for ornamental effect[6].

The leaves and sawdust, boiled in lye, have been used to dye hair an auburn colour[7].

Wood - hard, close grained, heavy. Although the wood is rather small, it is highly valued on account of its hardness - it is twice as hard as oak (Quercus species)[7][8]. It is used for engraving, printing blocks, bowls, combs etc[7][2][4][9][10][11][12]. The root especially is much liked by turners and cabinet makers[2].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Although it has been used medicinally in the past as a sedative and to treat syphilis, box is very rarely used in modern herbalism[8].

The leaves and the bark are alterative, antirheumatic, cathartic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, febrifuge, oxytocic and vermifuge[7][2][13][14][12]. The leaves have been used as a quinine substitute in the treatment of malaria[2]. The leaves are harvested in the spring, before the plant comes into flower, and they are dried for later use[15]. The bark can be harvested at any time of the year and is dried for use in decoctions[15]. Use this remedy with caution and preferably only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The plant has not been fully tested for its toxic side effects[2][14]. The wood is diaphoretic, in full dose it is narcotic and sedative, in overdose it is convulsant and emetico-cathartic[7]. A tincture of the wood has been used as a bitter tonic and antiperiodic, it has also had a reputation for curing leprosy[7]. A volatile oil distilled from the wood has been prescribed in cases of epilepsy[7]. An essential oil obtained from the plant is used in dentistry[2].

A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant[2]. It is extensively used in the treatment of rheumatism[2].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Hedge

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - stratification is not necessary but can lead to more regular germination[16]. The seed is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[17]. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. It usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c but stored seed can take longer[17]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Cuttings of short side shoots with a heel, September in a frame[1]. High percentage[18]. Rather slow to root[K].

Nodal cuttings in spring in a frame. Fairly easy[1].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Buxus sempervirens. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in almost any soil that is well-drained[4][1], preferring light shade and chalky soils[13][4][19][20]. Succeeds in dry shade[21]. Tolerates a pH range from 5.5 to 7.4[1].

A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -23°c, though it prefers milder winters[15]. A very polymorphic species, it is a very ornamental but slow growing plant[4] and there are many named varieties developed for their ornamental value[6]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[22][1]. A good bee plant[23]. Plants are very tolerant of being trimmed, they can be cut right back to the base if required and will usually resprout freely[4][5].

The foliage is pungently scented, especially when wet[24].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Buxus sempervirens. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Buxus sempervirens.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Buxus sempervirens
Genus
Buxus
Family
Buxaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    5 x 5 meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Illustration Buxus sempervirens0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Buxus sempervirens0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.6 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.102.11 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.64.7 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.2 Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (1974-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.67.77.8 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.3 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    16. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 3. Thompson and Morgan. (1989-00-00)
    18. ? Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    19. ? Knight. F. P. Plants for Shade. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0-900629-78-9 (1980-00-00)
    20. ? Brown. Shade Plants for Garden and Woodland. ()
    21. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    22. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)
    23. ? International Bee Research Association. Garden Plants Valuable to Bees. International Bee Research Association. (1981-00-00)
    24. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    25. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

    "image:Illustration Buxus sempervirens0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Buxus sempervirens"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyBuxaceae +
    Belongs to genusBuxus +
    Functions asHedge +
    Has binomial nameBuxus sempervirens +
    Has common nameBox +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +
    Has edible useCondiment +
    Has fertility typeBees + and Flies +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has growth rateSlow +
    Has hardiness zone5 +
    Has imageIllustration Buxus sempervirens0.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useDye + and Wood +
    Has mature height5 +
    Has mature width5 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAlterative +, Antiperiodic +, Antirheumatic +, Cathartic +, Cholagogue +, Diaphoretic +, Febrifuge +, Homeopathy +, Narcotic +, Odontalgic +, Oxytoxic +, Sedative +, Tonic + and Vermifuge +
    Has primary imageIllustration Buxus sempervirens0.jpg +
    Has search namebuxus sempervirens + and box +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameBuxus sempervirens +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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