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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Young leaves and catkins - raw[1].

The buds and twigs are used as a flavouring in stews[1]. Inner bark - raw or cooked. Best in the spring[1]. Inner bark can be dried, ground into a meal and used as a thickener in soups, or be added to flour when making bread, biscuits etc. Inner bark is generally only seen as a famine food, used when other forms of starch are not available or are in short supply[K]. Sap - raw or cooked[1]. The sap can be used as a refreshing drink or beer, it can also be concentrated into a syrup by boiling off much of the water[K]. Harvested in spring, the flow is best on a sunny day following a frost. An old English recipe for the beer is as follows:-

\"To every Gallon of Birch-water put a quart of Honey, well stirr'd together; then boil it almost an hour with a few Cloves, and a little Limon-peel, keeping it well scumm'd. When it is sufficiently boil'd, and become cold, add to it three or four Spoonfuls of good Ale to make it work...and when the Test begins to settle, bottle it up . . . it is gentle, and very harmless in operation within the body, and exceedingly sharpens the Appetite, being drunk ante pastum.\"[2].

Unknown part

Flowers

Inner bark

Leaves

Material uses

An infusion of the plant is used as a hair conditioner and dandruff treatment[1].

The thin outer bark is waterproof and has been used as the cladding on canoes and dwellings, and also to make containers[3]. A brown dye is obtained from the inner bark[3].

Wood - close-grained, soft but strong[4]. Trees do not grow large enough to be of use for lumber, but the wood is used locally for fence posts[5] and is also a good fuel[1]. The bark can be used as a kindling[1].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The bark is antirheumatic, astringent, lithontripic, salve and sedative[1]. A decoction of the flowers and leaves has been used as an abortifacient[3].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame[6][7][8][9]. Only just cover the seed and place the pot in a sunny position[6][7][9]. Spring sown seed should be surface sown in a sunny position in a cold frame[8][9]. If the germination is poor, raising the temperature by covering the seed with glass can help[9]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed, it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed, either as soon as it is ripe or in the early spring - do not cover the spring sown seed. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for 2 years before planting them out into their permanent positions in the winter[6][7][8][9].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Betula occidentalis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in a well-drained loamy soil in a sunny position[10][11]. Tolerates most soils including poor soils and heavy clays[11]. Fairly wind tolerant[11].

A fast-growing but short-lived tree[11]. A very ornamental plant[12], it hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[13]. It hybridizes in the wild with B. papyrifera[10]. A good plant to grow near the compost heap, aiding the fermentation process[14].

Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus[11].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Betula occidentalis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Betula occidentalis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Betula occidentalis
Genus
Betula
Family
Betulaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
?
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
9 x meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

"image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.10 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  2. ? 2.02.1 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.2 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.1 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.2 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.2 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. (1988-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  12. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  13. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
  14. ? Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
  15. ? Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press (1955-00-00)

"image:Betula occidentalis USDA.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Betula occidentalis"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyBetulaceae +
Belongs to genusBetula +
Has common nameWater Birch +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers +, Inner bark +, Leaves + and Sap +
Has edible useSeasoning + and Unknown use +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has imageBetula occidentalis USDA.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useContainers +, Hair care + and Waterproofing +
Has mature height9 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAbortifacient +, Antirheumatic +, Astringent +, Lithontripic +, Salve + and Sedative +
Has primary imageBetula occidentalis USDA.jpg +
Has search namebetula occidentalis + and x +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teheavy clayture preferenceHeavy clay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy nameBetula occidentalis +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +