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Uses

Toxic parts

The essential oil obtained from the bark contains 97 - 99% methyl salicylate. This is very toxic when taken orally, and it can also be absorbed through the skin, resulting in human fatalities. As little as 4, 700 mg can be fatal in children[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Inner bark - cooked or dried and ground into a powder[2][3][4]. Sweet and spicy[5]. The dried inner bark can be used as a thickener in soups etc or can be added to flour when making bread etc. Inner bark is generally only seen as a famine food, used when other forms of starch are not available or are in short supply[K].

Sap - raw or cooked[6][7][4]. A sweet flavour[8][5]. It is harvested in early spring, before the leaves unfurl, by tapping the trunk. The flow is best on sunny days following a heavy frost. A delicious drink, it can also be concentrated into a syrup or sugar[9]. The sap can be fermented to make birch beer or vinegar[9]. An old English recipe for the beer is as follows:- \"To every Gallon of Birch-water put a quart of Honey, well stirr'd together; then boil it almost an hour with a few Cloves, and a little Limon-peel, keeping it well scumm'd. When it is sufficiently boil'd, and become cold, add to it three or four Spoonfuls of good Ale to make it work...and when the Test begins to settle, bottle it up . . . it is gentle, and very harmless in operation within the body, and exceedingly sharpens the Appetite, being drunk ante pastum.\"[1]. The dried leaves and bark from the larger roots are a delightful tea substitute[5][9].

A wholesome, agreeable tea is made from the essential oil contained in the inner bark and twigs[10][11][3]. This essential oil is also used as a wintergreen flavouring in foods[9].

Unknown part

Inner bark

Material uses

An essential oil is obtained from the bark and twigs, it is distilled in quantity and is an item of commerce[12]. It can be used medicinally, as a food flavouring, as an ingredient in cosmetic shampoos and also to make a wholesome tea[13][10][7][14][1]. The oil, when decolourized, is similar to 'Oil of Wintergreen' (obtained from Gaultheria procumbens) and is considered to be of superior quality[15]. The tree is coppiced every 5 years and all parts are distilled for the oil[15]. The tree grows up to 3 metres tall in this 5 year period[15]. The greatest yield of oil is obtained if the tree is harvested in the summer[15].

The oil distilled from the wood is insect repellent[1].l The bark contains up to 16% tannin[16]. The thin outer bark is waterproof and has been used as the outer cladding on dwellings, canoes etc[17]. It has also been used to make baskets, dishes, buckets etc[17].

Wood - very strong, close grained, hard, heavy. The wood is richly marked[2], it weighs 40lb per cubic foot and is exploited commercially for making floors, furniture, tools etc[13][7][8][18][14][19]. It makes an excellent fuel[13][7][8][19].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The bark is anthelmintic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic and stimulant[2][10]. A tea made from the bark is used in the treatment of fevers, stomach aches and lung ailments[20][17], it is said to be an excellent tonic in cases of dysentery and to be useful in the treatment of gravel and female obstructions[2].

An essential oil distilled from the bark is anti-inflammatory, analgesic and rubefacient[20]. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, bladder infections, neuralgia etc[20]. The oil, called 'oil of wintergreen', used to be produced commercially, but it is now manufactured synthetically[20]. A tea made from the twigs is used in the treatment of fevers[20].

The leaves can be chewed or used in an infusion in the treatment of dysentery[17].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame[21][22][23][24]. Only just cover the seed and place the pot in a sunny position[21][22][24]. Spring sown seed should be surface sown in a sunny position in a cold frame[23][24]. If the germination is poor, raising the temperature by covering the seed with glass can help[24]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed, it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed, either as soon as it is ripe or in the early spring - do not cover the spring sown seed. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for 2 years before planting them out into their permanent positions in the winter[21][22][23][24].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Betula lenta. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in a well-drained loamy soil in a sheltered position[13][25]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Dislikes wet soils[25]. Shade tolerant[25]. Cherry birch is said to tolerate an annual precipitation of ca 60 to 150cm, an average annual temperature range of 5 to 12°C, and a pH of 4.5 to 7.5[1].

Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[26]. The bruised foliage has a strong smell of wintergreen[25]. A good plant to grow near the compost heap, aiding the fermentation process[27]. Trees can be coppiced on a cycle of 5 years or more[15].

Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus[25].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Betula lenta. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Betula lenta.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Betula lenta
Genus
Betula
Family
Betulaceae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.6 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.6 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.2 Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books ISBN 0-394-72811-4 (1979-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22642-5 (1970-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.5 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. (1946-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.417.5 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.119.2 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.420.5 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.121.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.122.2 McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
    23. ? 23.023.123.2 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    24. ? 24.024.124.224.324.4 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. (1988-00-00)
    25. ? 25.025.125.225.325.425.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    26. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)
    27. ? Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
    28. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    "image:Betula lenta subsps lenta 01-10-2005 14.53.56.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Betula lenta"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyBetulaceae +
    Belongs to genusBetula +
    Has common nameCherry Birch +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Inner bark + and Sap +
    Has edible useSeasoning +, Unknown use +, Sweetener + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeWind +
    Has flowers of typeMonoecious +
    Has growth rateVigorous +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imageBetula lenta subsps lenta 01-10-2005 14.53.56.JPG +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useEssential +, Fuel +, Tannin + and Wood +
    Has mature height24 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnalgesic +, Anthelmintic +, Antiinflammatory +, Astringent +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Rubefacient + and Stimulant +
    Has primary imageBetula lenta subsps lenta 01-10-2005 14.53.56.JPG +
    Has search namebetula lenta + and x +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
    Has soil teheavy clayture preferenceHeavy clay +
    Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
    Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomy nameBetula lenta +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheCanopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +