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Uses

Toxic parts

The whole plant is toxic and should only be used for external applications to unbroken skin[1][2][3][4].

Edible uses

There are no edible uses listed for Arnica montana.

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Arnica montana.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Arnica has a long history of herbal use, especially as an external treatment for bruises and sprains[5][6] - it is an ingredient of a number of proprietary preparations[6]. Internally, it has been used in the treatment of heart complaints and as a booster for the immune system[6]. Arnica increases local blood supply and accelerates healing, it is anti-inflammatory and increases the rate of absorption of internal bleeding[7]. Generally the plant is nowadays only recommended for internal use as a homeopathic medicine, principally for treating shock, injury and pain[7]. If used as a decoction or tincture it stimulates the circulation and is valuable in the treatment of angina and a weak or failing heart, but it can be toxic even at quite low doses and so is rarely used this way[7].

The flowers are the part most commonly used[8][5], they are harvested when fully open and dried - the receptacles are sometimes removed since these are liable to be attacked by insects[8]. The root is also used, it is harvested after the leaves have died down in the autumn and dried for later use[8]. The whole plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory, vulnerary[8][9][1][10][11]. Although a very valuable remedy, it should be used with caution. It has been known to cause contact dermatitis when used externally and collapse when taken internally[6]. Only take it internally under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The freshly crushed flowers cause sneezing if inhaled[5]. The leaves have also been smoked as a tobacco[5], though it is unclear whether this was for medicinal reasons

The whole plant, harvested when in flower, is used in homeopathic remedies[5]. It is especially useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries, sores and bruises[5]. The homeopathic dose has also been used effectively in the treatment of epilepsy and seasickness, and it might be of use as a hair growth stimulant[12].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in pots outdoors. Sow stored seed in early spring in a cold frame[8]. A period of cold stratification is helpful[6]. The fresh seed can germinate in 3 - 4 weeks at 13°c according to one report[13], though it can be slow, difficult and erratic and take 2 years to germinate[12]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out into their permanent positions in the following spring. Division in spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Arnica montana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a moist, well-drained humus rich soil, preferably lime-free[14]. One report says that it is often found in calcareous soils in the wild[9]. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.8 to 7.6. Prefers a mixture of sand, loam and peat[15]. Prefers a position in full sun[15][13]. Succeeds in light woodland[2] and in a rock garden or border[15][2].

Plants are hardy to about -25°c[16].

This species is declining in the wild, probably because of over-collection as a medicinal herb. It may become extinct in part of its range[14].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Arnica montana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Arnica montana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Arnica montana
Genus
Arnica
Family
Compositae
Imported References
Edible uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
    3. ? Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (1984-00-00)
    4. ? Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.6 Castro. M. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. Macmillan. London. ISBN 0-333-55581-3 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    12. ? 12.012.112.2 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. (1988-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    16. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)

    "image:Arnica montana.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Arnica montana"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyCompositae +
    Belongs to genusArnica +
    Has binomial nameArnica montana +
    Has common nameArnica +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has fertility typeSelf fertile +, Bees +, Flies +, Lepidoptera + and Self +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone6 +
    Has imageArnica montana.JPG +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has mature height0.3 +
    Has mature width0.15 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntiecchymotic +, Antiphlogistic +, Nervine +, Sternutatory + and Vulnerary +
    Has primary imageArnica montana.JPG +
    Has search namearnica montana + and arnica +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameArnica montana +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Arnica montana +, Arnica montana +, Arnica montana +, Arnica montana + and Arnica montana +