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Uses

Toxic parts

The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - raw or cooked[2][3][4][5][6]. Not very nice, it has a strong flavour of turpentine[7] and is only eaten as an emergency food[8]. A reasonable size, the seed is up to 11mm long[9].

A sweet edible manna exudes from the bark and twigs[8][5]. It is actually a gum[8].

A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[9].

Unknown part

Sap

Material uses

A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[10].

The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[11]. A resin is obtained from the sapwood[2][12][4]. Trees are tapped for three years and then rested for three years[13]. The yield is up to 5.5 kilos per tree[13]. Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[12]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[14][12]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[12]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[12] and is separated by distillation[14][12]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[14]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[14]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. The wood is very resinous and can be splintered and used as a torch[15]. A charcoal made from the leaves, mixed with rice water, is used as an ink[13].

Wood - moderately hard. Used for construction, shingles, boxes etc. It is useful in cold climates but is not resistant to white ants[16][13][17].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[14]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[14]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[14]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[14]. The wood is diaphoretic and stimulant[18]. It is useful in treating burning of the body, cough, fainting and ulcers[18].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[19]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[20]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[K]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[9]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[K]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[9]. Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[21].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Pinus roxburghii. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[22][20]. Succeeds on calcareous soils[20]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[22]. Dislikes shade[13]. Established plants tolerate drought[9].

The chir pine is not very hardy in Britain, succeeding outdoors only in the mildest areas of the country[20][21]. In the driest parts of its native range the leaves are shed after 10 - 11 months, making it deciduous[9]. Trees are extensively tapped for their resin in India[12] and are the main source of resin in that region[20]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[9]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[9]. This species is closely related to P. canariensis[9]. Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[23].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[9].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Pinus roxburghii. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Pinus roxburghii.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Pinus roxburghii
Genus
Pinus
Family
Pinaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
  • Unknown part (Condiment)
  • Sap (Manna)
  • Seed (Unknown use)
Material uses
  • Unknown part (Charcoal)
  • Unknown part (Dye)
  • Unknown part (Herbicide)
  • Unknown part (Ink)
  • Unknown part (Lighting)
  • Unknown part (Resin)
  • Unknown part (Wood)
Medicinal uses
  • Unknown part (Antiseptic)
  • Unknown part (Diaphoretic)
  • Unknown part (Diuretic)
  • Unknown part (Rubefacient)
  • Unknown part (Stimulant)
  • Unknown part (Vermifuge)
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
9
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Polunin. O. and Stainton. A. Flowers of the Himalayas. Oxford Universtiy Press (1984-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber (1948-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (1945-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-527-6 (2002-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  9. ? 9.009.019.029.039.049.059.069.079.089.099.109.11 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (1993-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.512.612.7 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.413.5 Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1972-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.514.614.714.814.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.1 [Flora of China] (1994-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.118.2 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  19. ? McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books ISBN 0-901361-21-6 (1985-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.420.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  23. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)