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Uses

Toxic parts

Seed

Hydrogen cyanide low toxicity
All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly also in their leaves, but not in their fruits. Hydrogen cyanide is the substance that gives almonds their characteristic taste but it should only be consumed in very small quantities. Apple seeds do not normally contain very high quantities of hydrogen cyanide but, even so, should not be consumed in very large quantities. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Edible uses

Notes

Apples are one of the most common and widely grown fruits of the temperate zone. There are a great many named varieties with differing flavours ranging from sour to sweet and textures from dry and mealy to crisp and juicy. There is also a wide range in the seasons of ripening with the first fruits being ready in Summer whilst other cultivars are not picked until late autumn and will store for 12 months or sometimes more. See individual cultivars for more details.

Fruit

Raw as a Fruit

Desert cultivars are sweet and often eaten fresh. Some cooking cultivars may be too tart or astringent to be eaten raw, and require cooking.

Cooked as a Jam, Jelly, Butter, Sauce, Chutney

Apples can be peeled, cored, and cooked down into a range of jams, jellies, butters, sauces and chutneys. Desert apple cultivars are often preferred for jams and jellies, while tarter cooking cultivars are often used for sauces and chutneys. Their high pectin content makes them a great base to mix with other fruits which lack pectin of their own.

Dried, Dehydrated as a Dried fruit

Slices of Apples can be sun dried or dehydrated and kept in a airtight container for many months.

Dried as a Fruit leather

Apple pulp forms a great fruit leather either by itself or a base to be blended with other fruits.

Seed

Oil

Material uses

Seed

Stem, Wood

Dried as a Fuel, Firewood
Dried, Sawn as a Timber

Fruit

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Leaves

Fruit

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Birds

The fruit is a good wildlife food source, especially for birds[12].

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed

This species is a hybrid and will not breed true from seed, though some interesting new fruiting cultivars can be produced.. It is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It usually germinates in late winter. Stored seed requires stratification for 3 months at 1°c and should be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is received[12]. It might not germinate for 12 months or more. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. If given a rich compost they usually grow away quickly and can be large enough to plant out in late summer, though consider giving them some protection from the cold in their first winter. Otherwise, keep them in pots in a cold frame and plant them out in late spring of the following year.

Rooted cuttings

Cuttings of mature wood, November in a frame[13].

Grafted cuttings

Cuttings are often grafted to dwarfing rootstocks to keep the canopy low enough for easy harvesting.

Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most fertile soils, preferring a moisture retentive well-drained loamy soil[14][12]. Grows well in heavy clay soils, though if these are poorly drained there could be problems with diseases such as canker[12]. Prefers a sunny position but succeeds in partial shade though it fruits less well in such a situation[14][12]. Tolerates a pH range from 6 to 7, preferring a range of 6.5 to 6.8[12].

The apple is one of the most commonly cultivated fruit crops in the temperate zone. The primary climatic requirements for the production of good quality fruit are warm summer temperatures, relative freedom from spring frosts, reasonable protection from the wind (especially cold north and east winds) and an evenly distributed rainfall of about 600 - 800mm per annum[12]. Good apple production has been achieved as far north as 65°, whilst about 1000 hours of winter temperatures below 7°c are necessary to initiate flower production[3]. However good quality apples can still be produced in other areas with careful management and choice of cultivars[12]. Even in tropical latitudes, the plant has succeeded at high elevations, producing fruit at elevations over 3000 metres in Ecuador for example[3]. Where space is at a premium, or at the limits of their climatic range, apples can be grown against a wall. Most cultivars will grow well against a sunny south or west facing wall, an east facing wall will suit many of the tougher cultivars and even a north facing wall can be used for early culinary cultivars[15].

A hybrid of mixed origins, including M. dasyphylla, M. praecox, M. pumila, M. sieversii and M. sylvestris, this species is very commonly cultivated in temperate areas for its edible fruit[13]. There are very many cultivars[5][16][12] and with careful choice of these cultivars it is possible to provide freshly harvested fruit from July to December and stored fruit for the rest of the year.

Growing apples near potatoes makes the potatoes more susceptible to blight[17]. Apples store better if they are grown in a sward that contains a high percentage of clover[17].

Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[12].

Crops

Fruit

Harvest

The huge array of cultivars for this species offer a variety of fruiting times. With careful choice of cultivars it is possible to provide freshly harvested fruit from mid-summer to mid-winter and stored fruit for the rest of the year.

Problems, pests & diseases

Armillaria

No information found for Armillaria. Can you help create it

Venturia inaequalis

No information found for Venturia inaequalis. Can you help create it?

Associations & Interactions

Allium schoenoprasum (Chives)

Allium schoenoprasum (Chive) or other members of the Allium genus are grown under apple trees it is reported to assist in the prevention of scab.

Digitalis

Erysimum cheiri (Wallflower)

Taraxacum

Tropaeolum majus (Nasturtium)

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Malus domestica.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Malus domestica
Genus
Malus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    9 x
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    white, pink
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.61.71.8 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (32202/01/01)
    2. ? Ken Fern [Malus Domestica] Plants For A Future (2012/07/27)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (32202/01/01)
    4. ? 4.04.14.2 Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. ISBN 0889025649 (32202/01/01)
    5. ? 5.05.15.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (32202/01/01)
    7. ? 7.07.17.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
    8. ? 8.08.18.2 Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man. Academic Press ISBN 0-12-136450-x (32202/01/01)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (32202/01/01)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (32202/01/01)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (32202/01/01)
    12. ? 12.0012.0112.0212.0312.0412.0512.0612.0712.0812.0912.10 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (32202/01/01)
    14. ? 14.014.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
    15. ? Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls Collins ISBN 0-00-219220-0 (32202/01/01)
    16. ? Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34324-2 (32202/01/01)

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    Facts about "Malus domestica"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupNo +
    Belongs to familyRosaceae +
    Belongs to genusMalus +
    Can be grown from cutting typeHard wood +
    Has binomial nameMalus domestica +
    Has common nameApple +
    Has cropFruit +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFruit + and Seed +
    Has edible useFruit +, Oil +, Jam +, Jelly +, Butter +, Sauce +, Chutney +, Dried fruit + and Fruit leather +
    Has flowers of colourwhite + and pink +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone3 +
    Has imageDiscovery apples.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partSeed +, Stem +, Wood + and Fruit +
    Has material useOil +, Lighting +, Fuel +, Firewood +, Timber + and Pectin +
    Has mature height9 +
    Has medicinal partLeaves +, Fruit + and Bark +
    Has medicinal useAntibacterial +, Astringent +, Laxitive +, Stomachic +, Odontalgic +, Dentifrice +, Anthelmintic +, Refrigerant + and Soporific +
    Has primary imageDiscovery apples.jpg +
    Has search namemalus domestica + and apple +
    Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
    Has seed requiring stratificationYes +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameMalus domestica +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is grown fromSeed +, Cutting + and Graft +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Provides forage forBirds +
    Show on main page searchYes +
    Tolerates air pollutionNo +
    Tolerates maritime exposureNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Tolerates windNo +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica +, Malus domestica + and Malus domestica +