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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked as a seasoning in soups[1][2][3][4][5][6]. Dry, sweet and mealy[7][8][9]. The fruit can also be made into jellies or sherbets[9]. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent[K]. The oval fruit is about 10mm long[10] and contains a single large seed[K]. Seed - raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous[K].

Fruit

Material uses

Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions[11], tolerating maritime exposure[10]. It is fairly fast-growing and very tolerant of pruning, but is rather open in habit and does not form a dense screen[K]. Because the plant fixes atmospheric nitrogen, it makes a hedge that enriches the soil rather than depriving it of nutrients[K].

An essential oil obtained from the flowers is used in perfumery[6]. A gum from the plant is used in the textile industry in calico printing[6].

Wood - hard, fine-grained. Used for posts, beams, domestic items[6][4], it is also much used for carving[12]. The wood is an excellent fuel[6][5].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The oil from the seeds is used with syrup as an electuary in the treatment of catarrh and bronchial affections[13].

The juice of the flowers has been used in the treatment of malignant fevers[13].

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers[14].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Nitrogen fixer

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[15]. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months[K]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help[16]. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well[15]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Difficult[17]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, 10 - 12cm with a heel, October/November in a frame[10]. The cuttings are rather slow and difficult to root, leave them for 12 months[17]. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months[15].

Root cuttings in the winter[10].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Elaeagnus angustifolia. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils that are well-drained[10], though it dislikes shallow chalk soils[16]. Prefers a light sandy soil that is only moderately fertile[7], succeeding in poor soils and dry soils[7][10]. Requires a position in full sun, growing very well in hot dry positions[18]. Plants are very drought and wind resistant[1][19][10], they tolerate conditions of considerable salinity and alkalinity[20].

A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -40°c[21]. However, plants prefer a continental climate[22] and are apt to be cut back in severe winters in Britain because the summer is often not warm enough to have fully ripened the wood[1]. A very variable species[14]. This species is often cultivated in N. Europe for its edible fruits, there are many named varieties and some of these are thornless[14]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[23][10]. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%. Plants are very tolerant of pruning, they usually resprout freely even when cut right back to the ground. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[24][10].

The flowers are sweetly and heavily scented[21].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Elaeagnus angustifolia. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Elaeagnus angustifolia.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Genus
Elaeagnus
Family
Elaeagnaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Salinity
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
7 x 7 meters
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1972-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.6 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  10. ? 10.0010.0110.0210.0310.0410.0510.0610.0710.0810.0910.1010.11 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (1974-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.2 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Matthews. V. The New Plantsman. Volume 1, 1994. Royal Horticultural Society ISBN 1352-4186 (1994-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. ()
  17. ? 17.017.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
  18. ? Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
  19. ? Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent (1990-00-00)
  20. ? Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
  22. ? Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
  23. ? Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. ()
  24. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)
  25. ? Davis. P. H. Flora of Turkey. Edinburgh University Press (1965-00-00)

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Facts about "Elaeagnus angustifolia"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyElaeagnaceae +
Belongs to genusElaeagnus +
Functions asHedge + and Nitrogen fixer +
Has binomial nameElaeagnus angustifolia +
Has common nameOleaster +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit + and Seed +
Has edible useUnknown use +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure +, High wind +, Drought + and Salinity +
Has fertility typeBees +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone2 +
Has imageElaeagnus angustifolia.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useEssential +, Fuel +, Gum + and Wood +
Has mature height7 +
Has mature width7 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useCancer +, Febrifuge + and Pectoral +
Has primary imageElaeagnus angustifolia.jpg +
Has salinity toleranceTolerant +
Has search nameelaeagnus angustifolia + and oleaster +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameElaeagnus angustifolia +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Elaeagnus angustifolia +, Elaeagnus angustifolia +, Elaeagnus angustifolia +, Elaeagnus angustifolia +, Elaeagnus angustifolia +, Elaeagnus angustifolia +, Elaeagnus angustifolia +, Elaeagnus angustifolia + and Elaeagnus angustifolia +