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Uses

Toxic parts

Extended use of this plant, either medicinally or in the diet, can cause allergic skin rashes or lead to photosensitivity in some people[1][2].

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - raw or cooked[3][4][5][6]. A rather bitter flavour, they make an acceptable addition to mixed salads and are best used when young[9, 183, K]. The leaves are also used as a hop-substitute for flavouring and as a preservative for beer etc[7][8][9][10]. Although in general yarrow is a very nutritious and beneficial plant to add to the diet, some caution should be exercised[K]. See the notes above on possible toxicity.

An aromatic tea is made from the flowers and leaves[10].

An essential oil from the flowering heads is used as a flavouring for soft drinks[10].

Unknown part

Leaves

Material uses

The growing plant repels beetles, ants and flies[11][12][13]. The plant has been burnt in order to ward off mosquitoes[14].

A liquid plant feed can be made from the leaves[15]. You fill a container with the leaves and then add some water. Leave it to soak for a week or two and then dilute the rather smelly dark liquid, perhaps 10 - 1 with water though this figure is not crucial[K]. This plant is an essential ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator[16]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K]. The fragrant seeds have been used to impart a pleasant smell indoors[14]. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used medicinally[17][5][18]. The leaves contain from 0.6 to 0.85% essential oil[19]. The leaves have been used as a cosmetic cleanser for greasy skin[20]. Yellow and green dyes are obtained from the flowers[21].

A good ground cover plant, spreading quickly by its roots[22].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Yarrow has a high reputation and is widely employed in herbal medicine, administered both internally and externally. It is used in the treatment of a very wide range of disorders but is particularly valuable for treating wounds, stopping the flow of blood, treating colds, fevers, kidney diseases, menstrual pain etc[23][2][24][14]. The whole plant is used, both fresh and dried, and is best harvested when in flower[25]. Some caution should be exercised in the use of this herb since large or frequent doses taken over a long period may be potentially harmful[25], causing allergic rashes and making the skin more sensitive to sunlight[2]. The herb combines well with Sambucus nigra flowers (Elder) and Mentha x piperita vulgaris (Peppermint) for treating colds and influenza[20].

The herb is antiseptic, antispasmodic, mildly aromatic, astringent, carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, odontalgic, stimulant, bitter tonic, vasodilator and vulnerary[3][8][11][1][15][26][27][13][2][19][24]. It also contains the anti-inflammatory agent azulene, though the content of this varies even between plants in the same habitat[2]. The herb is harvested in the summer when in flower and can be dried for later use[3].

The fresh leaf can be applied direct to an aching tooth in order to relieve the pain[20].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring or early autumn in a cold frame[28]. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 3 months[28]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, the divisions can be planted direct into their permanent positions. Divisions succeed at any time of the year.

Basal cuttings of new shoots in spring. Very easy, collect the shoots when they are about 10cm tall, potting them up individually in pots and keeping them in a warm but lightly shaded position. They should root within 3 weeks and will be ready to plant out in the summer.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Achillea millefolium. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils and situations but prefers a well-drained soil in a sunny position[29][11]. Shade tolerant[30]. Plants live longer when grown in a poor soil[31] and also do well on lime[22]. Established plants are very drought tolerant[31], they can show distress in very severe droughts but usually recover[32]. It remains green after grass has turned brown in a drought[33]. Plants succeed in maritime gardens[34]. The plant has a very spreading root system and is usually quite invasive[233, K].

A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c[33]. Yarrow is an excellent plant for growing in lawns, meadows, orchards etc., it is tolerant of repeated close cutting and of being walked on[35][15]. It works to improve the soil fertility[35][15]. A very good companion plant, it improves the health of plants growing nearby and enhances their essential oil content thus making them more resistant to insect predations[11][36][35][9]. There are some named forms, selected for their ornamental value[10][2]. 'Pink' (syn. 'Rosea') has very aromatic foliage and deep pink flowers[10]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[31].

A good bee plant, it is an important nectar source for many insects[37].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Achillea millefolium. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Achillea millefolium.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Achillea millefolium
Genus
Achillea
Family
Compositae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Achillea millefolium habito.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Achillea millefolium habito.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Achillea millefolium habito.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Achillea millefolium habito.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.6 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Larkcom. J. Salads all the Year Round. Hamlyn (1980-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 De. Bray. L. The Wild Garden. ()
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.311.411.5 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum ISBN 0-7718-8117-7 (1979-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.5 Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds. Frederick Muller Ltd ISBN 0-584-10141-4 (1977-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Bruce. M. E. Commonsense Compost Making. Faber ISBN 0-571-09990-4 (1977-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.119.219.3 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.4 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.122.2 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (1990-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  24. ? 24.024.124.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.125.2 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  26. ? 26.026.1 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-00-00)
  27. ? 27.027.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  28. ? 28.028.1 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Thompson and Morgan. (1987-00-00)
  29. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  30. ? Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
  31. ? 31.031.131.231.3 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  32. ? Chatto. B. The Dry Garden. Dent ISBN 0460045512 (1982-00-00)
  33. ? 33.033.1 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)
  34. ? Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)
  35. ? 35.035.135.2 Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. ISBN 0-88266-064-0 (1978-00-00)
  36. ? Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins (1979-00-00)
  37. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()

"image:Achillea millefolium habito.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Achillea millefolium"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyCompositae +
Belongs to genusAchillea +
Functions asGround cover +
Has binomial nameAchillea millefolium +
Has common nameYarrow +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Leaves +
Has edible useCondiment +, Unknown use + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure +, High wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeInsects +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has hardiness zone2 +
Has imageAchillea millefolium habito.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useCompost +, Cosmetic +, Dye +, Essential +, Hair care +, Liquid feed + and Repellent +
Has mature height0.6 +
Has mature width0.6 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiinflammatory +, Antiseptic +, Antispasmodic +, Aromatic +, Astringent +, Carminative +, Cholagogue +, Diaphoretic +, Digestive +, Emmenagogue +, Odontalgic +, Stimulant +, Tonic +, Vasodilator + and Vulnerary +
Has primary imageAchillea millefolium habito.jpg +
Has search nameachillea millefolium + and yarrow +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameAchillea millefolium +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSoil surface +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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