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Toxic parts

The seed contains substances that irritate the skin and mucous membranes[1]. The plant is possibly poisonous once the seedpods have formed[2].

Edible uses


Leaves - raw or cooked[3][4][5][6]. A hot pungent flavour, especially if eaten raw[K]. Young leaves are used as a flavouring in mixed salads, whilst older leaves are used as a potherb[7].

Seed - sprouted and eaten raw[8][9][10][6]. The seed takes about 4 days to be ready[11]. A hot flavour, it is often used in salads. A nutritional analysis is available[12].

The seed can be ground into a powder and used as a food flavouring[13][9][14][15], it is the 'white mustard' of commerce[16][17]. This is milder than the black mustard obtained from Brassica nigra[7]. The pungency of mustard develops when cold water is added to the ground-up seed - an enzyme (myrosin) acts on a glycoside (sinigrin) to produce a sulphur compound. The reaction takes 10 - 15 minutes. Mixing with hot water or vinegar, or adding salt, inhibits the enzyme and produces a mild bitter mustard[1].

Unknown part


Material uses

The seed contains up to 35% of a semi-drying oil[18]. It is used as a lubricant and for lighting etc[19][20][21][22]. The plant can be grown as a green manure crop[13][14]. It is very fast growing, producing a good bulk in just a few weeks from seed, but it is shallow rooted so does not do so well in dry periods[23]. It is also susceptible to all the diseases of the cabbage family such as club-root so is best avoided if this is likely to be a problem[13].

Unknown part


Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The seed is antibacterial, antifungal, appetizer, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, rubefacient and stimulant[5][24][12][1]. The seed has a cathartic action due to hydrolytic liberation of hydrogen sulphide[12]. In China it is used in the treatment of coughs with profuse phlegm and tuberculosis, pleurisy[24]. The seed is seldom used internally as a medicine in the west[1]. Externally it is usually made into mustard plasters (using the ground seed), poultices or added to the bath water. It is used in the treatment of respiratory infections, arthritic joints, chilblains and skin eruptions etc[1]. At a ratio of 1:3, the seed has an inhibitory action on the growth of fungus[24]. Care should be exercised in using this remedy because the seed contains substances that are extremely irritant to the skin and mucous membranes[1]. The leaves are carminative[12].


Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Green manure



Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Seed - sow in situ from early spring to late summer. Germination takes place in less than a week. The earlier sowings are for a seed crop, the later sowings are for edible leaves and green manure[25]. When sowing seed for use in mustard and cress, the seed is soaked for about 12 hours in warm water and then placed in a humid position. Traditionally, it is sown in a tray on a thin layer of soil, or on some moist blotting paper, and the tray is placed in a warm dark place for a few days to encourage rapid and rather etiolated growth. The seedlings can then be placed in a lighter position for a couple more days to turn green before being eaten. The mustard seed should be sown about 3 - 4 days later than the cress for them both to be ready at the same time[26].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Sinapis alba. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.


Prefers a light well-drained soil[6]. Succeeds on most soils when growing in a sunny position[1]. For best production, it requires high nutrient soils with a high level of nitrogen, but it may be grown on a wide range of soils from light to heavy, growing best on relatively heavy sandy loamy soils[27]. It is not suited to very wet soils[27]. White mustard grows best where the annual precipitation varies from 35 to 179cm, annual temperature from 5.6 to 24.9°C and pH from 4.5 to 8.2[27].

White mustard is a quick-growing long-day annual which prefers temperate climates with some humidity. It is sometimes cultivated, both in the garden and commercially, for its edible seed[28][7]. The plant can withstand high temperatures, but very hot days during flowering and ripening may reduce seed setting and lower quality of seed[27]. There are some named varieties[7]. It is a very fast growing plant, but requires plenty of moisture for optimum growth[23]. Seed yields are usually a bit less than 1 tonne per hectare, though experimental plantings have suggested that up to 8 tonnes per hectare is possible[27]. White mustard is sometimes also grown as a seed sprout, usually with cress seeds (Lepidium sativum) to supply mustard and cress. This is a mixture of the two types of sprouted seeds, used when about 7 - 10 days old[K]. The mustard seed should be sown three days before the cress seed[1].

The plant is not very deep rooted[23], it self-sows freely when in a suitable site[5].


Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Sinapis alba. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Sinapis alba.




None listed.


None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Binomial name
Sinapis alba
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Hardiness Zone
Heat Zone
full sun
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    0.6 x 0.3
    Flower Colour
    Flower Type

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    1. ? Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (32202/01/01)
    2. ? Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (32202/01/01)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (32202/01/01)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (32202/01/01)
    5. ? Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (32202/01/01)
    6. ? Larkcom. J. Salads all the Year Round. Hamlyn (32202/01/01)
    7. ? Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (32202/01/01)
    8. ? 8.08.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
    9. ? Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. (32202/01/01)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (32202/01/01)
    12. ? Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (32202/01/01)
    13. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)
    14. ? Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press ISBN 0-7012-0784-1 (32202/01/01)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (32202/01/01)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (32202/01/01)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (32202/01/01)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (32202/01/01)
    19. ? 19.019.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (32202/01/01)
    20. ? 20.020.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
    21. ? 21.021.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    22. ? 22.022.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
    23. ? Woodward. L. Burge. P. Green Manures. Elm Farm Research Centre. (32202/01/01)
    24. ? Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (32202/01/01)
    25. ? Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (32202/01/01)
    26. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Vegetables Macmillan Reference Books, London. ISBN 0 333 62640 0 (32202/01/01)
    27. ? Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (32202/01/01)
    28. ? Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (32202/01/01)
    29. ? Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)

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    Facts about "Sinapis alba"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteFalse +
    Article requires citationsFalse +
    Article requires cleanupFalse +
    Belongs to familyBrassicaceae +
    Belongs to genusSinapis +
    Functions asGreen manure + and Fumigant +
    Has binomial nameSinapis alba +
    Has common nameWhite Mustard +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Leaves + and Seed +
    Has edible useCondiment + and Unknown use +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateVigorous +
    Has hardiness zone6 +
    Has imageKoeh-265.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typeAnnual +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useOil +
    Has mature height0.6 +
    Has mature width0.3 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntibacterial +, Antifungal +, Appetizer +, Carminative +, Cathartic +, Diaphoretic +, Digestive +, Diuretic +, Emetic +, Expectorant +, Rubefacient +, Stimulant + and Vesicant +
    Has primary imageKoeh-265.jpg +
    Has search namesinapis alba + and white mustard +
    Has seed requiring scarificationFalse +
    Has seed requiring stratificationFalse +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameSinapis alba +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates air pollutionFalse +
    Tolerates maritime exposureFalse +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilFalse +
    Tolerates windFalse +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba +, Sinapis alba + and Sinapis alba +