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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Roots - raw or cooked[1][2]. They can be boiled and eaten like potatoes or macerated and then boiled to yield a sweet syrup. The roots can also be dried and ground into a powder, this powder is rich in protein and can be mixed with wheat flour and then used for making bread, biscuits, muffins etc[3][4][5][6]. One hectare of this plant can produce 8 tonnes of flour from the rootstock[7]. The plant is best harvested from late autumn to early spring since it is richest in starch at this time[8]. The root contains about 80% carbohydrate (30 - 46% starch) and 6 - 8% protein[7].

Young shoots in spring - raw or cooked[2][3][4][9][10][6]. An asparagus substitute. They taste like cucumber[11]. The shoots can still be used when they are up to 50cm long[7]. Base of mature stem - raw or cooked[1][8][3]. It is best to remove the outer part of the stem[4][6]. It is called 'Cossack asparagus'[6]. Immature flowering spike - raw, cooked or made into a soup[4][7][9]. It tastes like sweet corn[6]. Seed - raw or cooked[1][12]. The seed is rather small and fiddly to utilize, but has a pleasant nutty taste when roasted[2]. The seed can be ground into a flour and used in making cakes etc[12]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed[3][7]. Due to the small size of the seed this is probably not a very worthwhile crop[K].

Pollen - raw or cooked. The pollen can be used as a protein rich additive to flour when making bread, porridge etc[2][3][4][9][10]. It can also be eaten with the young flowers[7], which makes it considerably easier to utilize. The pollen can be harvested by placing the flowering stem over a wide but shallow container and then gently tapping the stem and brushing the pollen off with a fine brush[8]. This will help to pollinate the plant and thereby ensure that both pollen and seeds can be harvested[K].

Flowers

Leaves

Unknown part

Oil

Pollen

Material uses

The stems and leaves have many uses. Gathered in the autumn they make a good thatch, can be used in making paper, can be woven into mats, chairs, hats etc[9][13][12]. They are a good source of biomass, making an excellent addition to the compost heap or used as a source of fuel etc. The pulp of the plant can be converted into rayon[14].

The stems can be used to make rush lights. The outer stem is removed except for a small strip about 10mm wide which acts as a spine to keep the stem erect. The stem is then soaked in oil and can be lit and used like a candle[3]. The female flowers make an excellent tinder and can be lit from the spark of a flint[11]. A fibre is obtained from the blossom stem and flowers[3][15][13]. A fibre obtained from the leaves can be used for making paper[16] The leaves are harvested in summer, autumn or winter and are soaked in water for 24 hours prior to cooking. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1½ hours. They make a green or brown paper[16]. The hairs of the fruits are used for stuffing pillows etc[12]. They have good insulating and buoyancy properties and have also been used as a wound dressing and a lining for babies nappies[13]. The flowering stems can be dried and used for insulation, they also have good buoyancy properties[3][17].

The pollen is highly inflammable, it is used in making fireworks etc[18].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The leaves are diuretic[19]. The leaves have been mixed with oil and used as a poultice on sores[12].

The pollen is astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, haemostatic, refrigerant, sedative, suppurative and vulnerary[19]. The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes haemostatic[20]. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, haemorrhage, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system[14][20]. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women[20]. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhoea and injuries[20]. A decoction of the stems has been used in the treatment of whooping cough[12]. The roots are diuretic, galactogogue, refrigerant and tonic[19]. The roots are pounded into a jelly-like consistency and applied as a poultice to wounds, cuts, boils, sores, carbuncles, inflammations, burns and scalds[14][12]. The flowers are used in the treatment of a wide range of ailments including abdominal pain, amenorrhoea, cystitis, dysuria, metrorrhagia and vaginitis[19]. The young flower heads are eaten as a treatment for diarrhoea[14].

The seed down has been used as a dressing on burns and scalds[12].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - surface sow in a pot and stand it in 3cm of water. Pot up the young seedlings as soon as possible and, as the plants develop, increase the depth of water. Plant out in summer. Division in spring. Very easy, harvest the young shoots when they are about 10 - 30cm tall, making sure there is at least some root attached, and plant them out into their permanent positions.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Typha latifolia. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

A very easily grown plant, succeeding in the boggy margins of ponds or in shallow water up to 15cm deep[21]. It succeeds in acid and calcareous soils and requires a less organic-rich soil than T. angustifolia in order to do well[21]. It succeeds in sun or part shade[22].

A very invasive plant spreading freely at the roots when in a suitable site, it is not suitable for growing in small areas[23]. Unless restrained by some means, such as a large bottomless container, the plant will soon completely take over a site and will grow into the pond, gradually filling it in. This species will often form an almost complete monoculture in boggy soil.

Provides excellent cover for wild fowl[24].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Typha latifolia. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Typha latifolia.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Typha latifolia
Genus
Typha
Family
Typhaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
aquatic
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Typha latifolia Finland.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.73.83.9 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.5 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.57.6 Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press ISBN 0-8623-0343-9 (1967-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.5 Sweet. M. Common Edible and Useful Plants of the West. Naturegraph Co. ISBN 0-911010-54-8 (1962-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.2 Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books ISBN 0-394-72811-4 (1979-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Craighead. J., Craighead. F. and Davis. R. A Field Guide to Rocky Mountain Wildflowers The Riverside Press ISBN 63-7093 (1963-00-00)
    12. ? 12.0012.0112.0212.0312.0412.0512.0612.0712.0812.0912.10 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum ISBN 0-7718-8117-7 (1979-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.5 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    16. ? 16.016.116.2 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.1 Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.1 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
    19. ? 19.019.119.219.319.4 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.120.220.320.4 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.121.2 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    23. ? Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. ()
    24. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)

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