This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked and used in pies, preserves etc[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. It is of variable quality, with the finest forms having a rich acid flavour[1]. The hemispherical fruit is about 15mm in diameter[8].

Young shoots - raw or cooked like rhubarb[6][9][7][10]. They are harvested as they emerge through the soil in the spring, and whilst they are still tender, and then peeled[K].

A tea is made from the leaves and another from the bark of the root[9][7], 257.

Fruit

Unknown part

Tea

Material uses

A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit[11].

Unknown part

Dye

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The roots are cathartic[10]. A decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea[10]. The root has been chewed in the treatment of coughs and toothache[10]. An infusion of the roots has been used as a wash for sore eyes[10]. The root has been used, combined with Hypericum spp, to treat the first stages of consumption[10].

An infusion of the astringent root bark is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery[12][13]. The leaves are highly astringent[10]. A decoction is used in the treatment of bowel complaints[10]. A tea made from the leaves is used as a wash for old and foul sores, ulcers and boils[13][10].

A decoction of the roots, stems and leaves has been used in the treatment of whooping cough[10].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[8]. Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn.

Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[8].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Rubus occidentalis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade[14][15][8].

Sometimes cultivated, especially in N. America, for its edible fruit[7], it is a parent of many named varieties[14][3]. This species is a raspberry with biennial stems, it produces a number of new stems each year from the perennial rootstock, these stems fruit in their second year and then die[8].

Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[8].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Rubus occidentalis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Rubus occidentalis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Rubus occidentalis
Genus
Rubus
Family
Rosaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    3 x meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

    "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press (1975-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press ISBN 0-8623-0343-9 (1967-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences (1978-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.58.68.7 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
    10. ? 10.0010.0110.0210.0310.0410.0510.0610.0710.0810.0910.1010.11 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. ISBN 0-02-544950-8 (1974-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.1 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    16. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    Cite error: <ref> tag with name "PFAFimport-159" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.

    "image:Black_Raspberries,_Underhill.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.