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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw[1][2][3][4]. Juicy and refreshing with a sub-acid flavour[5], they are considered delicious by many people though others do not like the large number of seeds with relatively little fruit pulp[K]. The fruit juice can be used in soups, sauces, jellies, ice cream, cakes etc[5]. The fruit contains about 1.5% protein, 1.6% fat, 16.8% carbohydrate, 0.6% ash[6][7]. Annual yields from wild trees in the Himalayas averaged 32kg per tree[8]. The fruit is about 12cm in diameter[9].

The fresh seed is soft and can be eaten raw[10]. When dried it is used as a seasoning in dal, fried samosa, stuffings and chutneys[5].

The boiled leaves are said to be eaten[5].

Unknown part

Fruit

Leaves

Material uses

A red dye is obtained from the flowers and also from the rind of unripened fruits[11][12][13][14]. The dye can be red or black and it is also used as an ink[6]. It is coppery-brown in colour[14]. No mordant is required[14]. A fast yellow dye is obtained from the dried rind[8].

The dried peel of the fruit contains about 26% tannin[15][16]. The bark can also be used as a source of tannin[17]. The root bark contains about 22% tannin, a jet-black ink can be made from it[8]. Plants are grown as hedges in Mediterranean climates[9].

Wood - very hard, compact, close grained, durable, yellow. Used for making agricultural implements. A possible substitute for box, Buxus spp[17][6][13][8].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The pomegranate has a long history of herbal use dating back more than 3,000 years[18]. All parts of the plant contain unusual alkaloids, known as 'pelletierines', which paralyse tapeworms so that they are easily expelled from the body by using a laxative[18]. The plant is also rich in tannin, which makes it an effective astringent. It is used externally in the treatment of vaginal discharges, mouth sores and throat infections[18].

The whole plant, but in particular the bark, is antibacterial, antiviral and astringent[19][15][20][11][21][8]. This remedy should be used with caution, overdoses can be toxic[19][22]. The flowers are used in the treatment of dysentery, stomach ache and cough[22]. Along with the leaves and seeds, they have been used to remove worms[4]. The seeds are demulcent and stomachic[4][23]. The fruit is a mild astringent and refrigerant in some fevers and especially in biliousness[4]. It is also cardiac and stomachic[23]. The dried rind of the fruit is used in the treatment of amoebic dysentery, diarrhoea etc[4][18]. It is a specific remedy for tapeworm infestation[24]. The stem bark is emmenagogue[22]. Both the stem and the root barks are used to expel tapeworms[4]. Use this with caution, the root bark can cause serious poisoning[25].The bark is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[18].

The dried pericarp is decocted with other herbs and used in the treatment of colic, dysentery, leucorrhoea etc[22].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Hedge

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse, preferably at a temperature of 22°c[9][18]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first 2 growing seasons. Plant out in late spring or early summer.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 4 - 5cm with a heel, June/July in a frame[26][27]. Good percentage[26]. Cuttings of mature wood, 20 - 25cm long, November in a warm greenhouse[27]. Layering.

Division of suckers in the dormant season[9]. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though we prefer to pot them up first and plant them out when they are growing away well in late spring or early summer.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Punica granatum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained fertile soil[1][28][29] and succeeds in a hot dry position[30]. Requires a sheltered sunny position[31].

Not very hardy in Britain, the pomegranate tolerates temperatures down to about -11°c[3], but it is best grown on a south facing wall even in the south of the country because it requires higher summer temperatures than are normally experienced in this country in order to ripen its fruit and its wood[32][30]. The wood is also liable to be cut back by winter frosts when it is grown away from the protection of a wall[32]. Trees do not grow so well in the damper western part of Britain[28]. Most plants of this species grown in Britain are of the dwarf cultivar 'Nana'. This is hardier than the type but its fruit is not such good quality[32]. This sub-species fruited on an east-facing wall at Kew in the hot summer of 1989[K]. The pomegranate is often cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties[5]. In Britain fruits are only produced after very hot summers. Plants often sucker freely[25]. Flowers are produced on the tips of the current years growth[9].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[9].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Punica granatum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Punica granatum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Punica granatum
Genus
Punica
Family
Punicaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
9
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    5 x 8 meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Pomegranate flower and fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Pomegranate flower and fruit.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


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    References

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    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.64.7 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
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    10. ? 10.010.1 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
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    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (1945-00-00)
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    15. ? 15.015.115.215.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
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    20. ? 20.020.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    21. ? 21.021.1 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
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    23. ? 23.023.123.2 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
    24. ? 24.024.1 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    25. ? 25.025.125.2 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
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    28. ? 28.028.1 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
    29. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Conservatory and Indoor Plants Volumes 1 & 2 Pan Books, London. ISBN 0-330-37376-5 (1998-00-00)
    30. ? 30.030.1 Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent (1990-00-00)
    31. ? Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls Collins ISBN 0-00-219220-0 (1983-00-00)
    32. ? 32.032.132.232.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    33. ? Polunin. O. and Stainton. A. Flowers of the Himalayas. Oxford Universtiy Press (1984-00-00)

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