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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - cooked. A bitter and acrid flavour, but it can be used to make a marmalade[1][2][3]. The fruit is also used to make a refreshing drink[4][5]. The freshly picked fruit yields little juice but if stored for 2 weeks it will yield about 20% juice[5], which is rich in vitamin C. Yields of up to 14 kilos of fruit per plant have been achieved in America[6]. The fruit is 2 - 3cm wide[7], though most of this is the skin[K].

The fruit peel can be used as a flavouring[5].

Young leaves - cooked[5].

Unknown part

Fruit

Leaves

Material uses

Used as a rootstock for Citrus species (oranges, lemons etc)[3][6]. It confers an extra 3°c resistance to the cold[6]. The plant is very thorny and makes an excellent impenetrable barrier or hedge[1][2][8], though this barrier is not very dense[K]. The plants are very tolerant of pruning[9], they are best clipped in early summer shortly after flowering[10][11].
There are no material uses listed for Poncirus trifoliata.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The thorns are used in the treatment of toothache[12].

The stem bark is used in the treatment of colds[12]. The fruits contain a number of medically active constituents including flavonoids, coumarins, monoterpenes and alkaloids[13]. The fruit, with the endocarp and seeds removed, is carminative, deobstruent and expectorant[14]. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation and abdominal distension, stuffy sensation in the chest, prolapse of the uterus, rectum and stomach[14]. It is milder in effect than the immature fruit and is better used for removing stagnancy of food and vital energy in the spleen and stomach[14].

The unripe fruit is antidiarrheic, antiemetic, antispasmodic, deobstruent, digestive, diuretic, laxative, stimulant, stomachic and vasoconstrictor[15][14][16][12]. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation and abdominal distension, stuffy sensation in the chest, prolapse of the uterus, rectum and stomach, shock[14].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Rootstock

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[10]. Cold stratify stored seed for 4 weeks and sow early spring in a greenhouse[17]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June/July in a frame[18].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Poncirus trifoliata. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in an ordinary garden soil[18], preferably well-drained[9], but prefers a fertile light sandy soil in a sunny position[2][10]. A plant is growing and fruiting well in light woodland shade at Cambridge Botanical Gardens[K]. Plants dislike soil cultivation close to their roots and so should either be well mulched to prevent weed growth, or hand weeded[19]. Succeeds in poor acid soils[20]. Plants also succeed in chalk-laden soils[11].

Hardy to about -15°c[21]. Plants have survived -30°c of frost without injury according to one report[2]. The bitter orange hybridizes with Citrus species and could possibly be used in breeding programmes to produce hardier forms of oranges, lemons etc[4][6]. It could also be of value in conferring disease resistance, tolerance of poorer soils and dwarfing characteristics. The flowers are produced on the previous years wood[10]. The whole plant, but especially the flowers[19], is strongly aromatic[9]. A very ornamental plant[18][2], the fruits are freely formed in south-western Britain[2][22]. A hedge at Wisley in a semi-shaded position fruits heavily in most years[K]. Another report says that warm autumns are required if the plant is to fruit freely. Fertile seed is produced after warm summers[9].

Plants are relatively short-lived, deteriorating after about 25 years[19].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Poncirus trifoliata. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Poncirus trifoliata.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Poncirus trifoliata
Genus
Poncirus
Family
Rutaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    3 x 3 meters
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Poncirus trifoliata2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Poncirus trifoliata2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Poncirus trifoliata2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Poncirus trifoliata2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.52.62.72.8 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. ()
    7. ? 7.07.1 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (1974-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.4 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.5 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila ISBN 92 9061 120 0 (1998-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.5 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
    16. ? 16.016.1 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    17. ? Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.119.2 Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 (1990-00-00)
    20. ? Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    21. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
    22. ? Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. ()
    23. ? Wilson. E. H. Plantae Wilsonae. ()

    "image:Poncirus trifoliata2.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Poncirus trifoliata"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyRutaceae +
    Belongs to genusPoncirus +
    Functions asHedge + and Rootstock +
    Has common nameBitter Orange +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Fruit + and Leaves +
    Has edible useSeasoning + and Unknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Insects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateSlow +
    Has hardiness zone5 +
    Has imagePoncirus trifoliata2.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has mature height3 +
    Has mature width3 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntiemetic +, Antispasmodic +, Carminative +, Deobstruent +, Digestive +, Diuretic +, Expectorant +, Laxative +, Odontalgic +, Stimulant +, Stomachic + and Vasoconstrictor +
    Has primary imagePoncirus trifoliata2.jpg +
    Has search nameponcirus trifoliata + and x +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
    Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
    Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomy namePoncirus trifoliata +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +