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Uses

Toxic parts

The leaves and the roots are very poisonous[1][2][3][4][5].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw, cooked or made into jams, jellies, marmalades, pies etc[1][6][2][7][8][9]. The fruit can also be dried for later use[10]. The fruit should only be eaten when it is fully ripe[11][4][12], the unripe fruit is strongly laxative[9]. Remove the rind[12]. The fruit is very aromatic[12], and has a peculiar though agreeable flavour[9]. Sweet and acid. Do not eat the seeds[4]. In excess the fruit can cause colic[13][14][15]. The fruit is about 5cm long[16].

Fruit

Material uses

An infusion of the boiled leaves has been sprayed on potato plants to protect them from insects[17]. Other reports suggest that it is insecticidal rather than repellent[18][10]. The root ooze has been used to soak corn seed prior to planting it out in order to prevent it being eaten by crows or insects[10].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

American mandrake is a most powerful and useful herbal medicine, exercising an influence on every part of the system and stimulating the glands to healthy action[2]. Its greatest power lies in its action on the liver and bowels[2]. It is a gastro-intestinal irritant, a powerful hepatic and intestinal stimulant[2]. Although often used internally in the past, the plant's cytotoxic action makes it an unsafe remedy for internal use[19].

The root is antibilious, cathartic, cytostatic, hydrogogue and purgative[2][3][20][21][22][23][5]. The plant contains podophyllin, which has an antimiotic effect (it interferes with cell division and can thus prevent the growth of cells). It is, therefore, a possible treatment for cancer, and has been used especially in the treatment of ovarian cancer[20][24][21][22][14][23][25]. However, alopecia is said to be a common side-effect of this treatment[25]. The root is most active medicinally in early spring when it is beginning to shoot[2]. The resin, which is obtained from the root[26], is used in the treatment of warts and has been found to be effective against uterine warts that are sometimes experienced in pregnancy[16][5]. It is also used in the treatment of small-cell carcinoma[26]. The root is harvested in the autumn and either dried for later use or the resin is extracted[18]. The whole plant, apart from the ripe fruit, is highly poisonous and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner[18]. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women[18]. Large doses have been used to commit suicide[17].

A homeopathic remedy is obtained from the fresh root, harvested before the fruit is ripe[27]. This is used particularly in the treatment of diarrhoea[27].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in a cold frame in early spring. The seed germinates in 1 - 4 months at 15°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse for at least 2 growing seasons. Plant them out into their permanent positions in the winter when the plants are dormant. Division in March/April[28].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Podophyllum peltatum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a moist peaty soil and filtered light or shade[2][28]. Grows well in a moist open woodland[29][30] and also succeeds under beech trees in a deep moist leafy soil[31]. Succeeds in a pH ranging from 4 to 7[18].

A very hardy plant[2], tolerating temperatures down to -15°c or lower when dormant[32], though the young leaves in spring can be damaged by late frosts[33]. Plants in this genus have excited quite a lot of interest for the compounds found in their roots which have been shown to have anti-cancer activity[23]. There are various research projects under way (as of 1990)[23]. The flower has a foul smell[27].

The plant takes some years to become established[23] but is very long lived in a suitable habitat[31] and can become a vigorous colonizer[33].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Podophyllum peltatum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Podophyllum peltatum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Podophyllum peltatum
Genus
Podophyllum
Family
Podophyllaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
partial sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    2. ? 2.002.012.022.032.042.052.062.072.082.092.10 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Stary. F. Poisonous Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-35666-3 (1983-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.2 Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences (1978-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 Sholto-Douglas. J. Alternative Foods. ()
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (1984-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-28925-4 (1977-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.316.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.217.3 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.518.6 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.1 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    20. ? 20.020.120.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    21. ? 21.021.121.2 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    22. ? 22.022.122.2 Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber ()
    23. ? 23.023.123.223.323.423.5 RHS. The Garden. Volume 113. Royal Horticultural Society (1988-00-00)
    24. ? 24.024.1 Polunin. O. and Stainton. A. Flowers of the Himalayas. Oxford Universtiy Press (1984-00-00)
    25. ? 25.025.125.2 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990-00-00)
    26. ? 26.026.126.2 Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-2624-6 (1993-00-00)
    27. ? 27.027.127.227.3 Castro. M. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. Macmillan. London. ISBN 0-333-55581-3 (1990-00-00)
    28. ? 28.028.1 Sanders. T. W. Popular Hardy Perennials. Collingridge (1926-00-00)
    29. ? Knight. F. P. Plants for Shade. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0-900629-78-9 (1980-00-00)
    30. ? Brown. Shade Plants for Garden and Woodland. ()
    31. ? 31.031.1 ? The Plantsman. Vol. 4. 1982 - 1983. Royal Horticultural Society (1982-00-00)
    32. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)
    33. ? 33.033.1 Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)

    "image:Podophyllum_peltatum_-_Köhler?s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-246.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Podophyllum peltatum"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyPodophyllaceae +
    Belongs to genusPodophyllum +
    Has binomial namePodophyllum peltatum +
    Has common nameAmerican Mandrake +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFruit +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imagePodophyllum peltatum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-246.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useInsecticide +
    Has mature height0.3 +
    Has mature width0.3 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntibilious +, Cancer +, Cathartic +, Cytostatic +, Homeopathy +, Hydrogogue +, Purgative +, Warts + and Women's complaints +
    Has primary imagePodophyllum_peltatum_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-246.jpg +
    Has search namepodophyllum peltatum + and american mandrake +
    Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid + and Neutral +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferencePartial sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy namePodophyllum peltatum +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum +, Podophyllum peltatum + and Podophyllum peltatum +