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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Root - raw or cooked like potatoes[1][2][3][4][5][6]. It contains up to 5% sugar. The flavour and texture are best when the root is young and still growing[7]. It can be dried, ground coarsely and used as a porridge[8][9][10]. In Russia they are harvested and processed into starch[11].

Young shoots - raw or cooked[12][10][4][13]. They are best if used before the leaves form, when they are really delicious[7]. They can be used like bamboo shoots[6]. The partly unfolded leaves can be used as a potherb and the Japanese dry young leaves, grind them into a powder and mix them with cereal flour when making dumplings[6]. The stems are reported to contain 4.8 g protein, 0.8 g fat, 90.0 g total carbohydrate, 41.2 g fiber, and 4.4 g ash[11]. Seed - raw or cooked[14]. It can be ground into a powder and used as a flour[15][10][4][5]. The seed is rather small and difficult to remove from the husk but it is said to be very nutritious[6]. A sugar is extracted from the stalks or wounded stems[1][16][10][17]. A sweet liquorice-like taste[17], it can be eaten raw or cooked[10]. The stems can be boiled in water and then the water boiled off in order to obtain the sugar[18]. A sugary gum that exudes from the stems can be rolled into balls and eaten as sweets[6].

A powder extracted from the dried stems can be moistened and roasted like marshmallow[10][17][4][6].

Leaves

Unknown part

Material uses

The common reed can provide a large quantity of biomass and this is used in a wide variety of ways as listed below. Annual yields of 40 - 63 tonnes per hectare have been reported[11]. The plant is also converted into alcohol (for use as a fuel), is burnt as a fuel and is made into fertilizer[19]. The plant is rich in pentosans and may be used for the production of furfural - the nodes and sheaths yield 6.6% whilst the underground parts over 13% of furfural[11]. The pentosan content increases throughout the growing period and is maximum in the mature reed[11]. The reed can be used also for the preparation of absolute alcohol, feed yeast and lactic acid[11].

The stems are useful in the production of homogeneous boards[11]. They can also be processed into a fine fibrous material suitable as a filler in upholstery[11]. The stems have many uses. They are used for thatching roofs[20][9][3][5]. It can last for 100 years[21]. The stems and leaves are also used for building dwellings, lattices, fences, arrows by Indians, and for weaving mats, carrying nets, basket making, insulation, fuel, as a cork substitute etc[2][3][22][4][23][14][11]. The stem contains over 50 percent cellulose and is useful in the manufacture of pulps for rayon and paper[11]. The fibre from the leaves and stems is used for making paper[24]. The fibre is 0.8 - 3.0 mm long and 5.0 - 30.5µm in diameter. The stems and leaves are harvested in the summer, cut into usable pieces and soaked for 24 hours in clear water. They are then cooked for 2 hours with lye and beaten in a blender. The fibre makes a khaki paper[24]. A fibre obtained from the plant is used for making string[17][5]. The flowering stalks yield a fibre suitable for rope making[11]. The leaves are used in basket making and for weaving mats etc[21][19]. A light green dye is obtained from the flowers[25][23]. Freshly cut shoots are a good green manure[3] (Does this man as a soil mulch?[K]). The inflorescences are used as brooms[3]. The plant can be used as a cork substitute[3]. No further details. The plant is mixed with mud to make a plaster for walls[26]. Pens for writing on parchment were cut and fashioned from the thin stems of this reed[11], whilst the stems were also used as a linear measuring device[11].

The plant has a very vigorous and running rootstock, it is useful for binding the soil along the sides of streams etc[23]. It is planted for flood control since it stablizes the banks and gradually builds up soil depth, thus raising the level of the bank.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The leaves are used in the treatment of bronchitis and cholera, the ash of the leaves is applied to foul sores[27].

A decoction of the flowers is used in the treatment of cholera and food poisoning[27]. The ashes are styptic[27]. The stem is antidote, antiemetic, antipyretic and refrigerant[27].

The root is antiasthmatic, antiemetic, antipyretic, antitussive, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge, lithontripic, sedative, sialogogue and stomachic[28][29][27][19]. It is taken internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, fevers, vomiting, coughs with thick dark phlegm, lung abscesses, urinary tract infections and food poisoning (especially from sea foods)[19][14]. Externally, it is mixed with gypsum and used to treat halitosis and toothache[19]. The root is harvested in the autumn and juiced or dried for use in decoctions[19].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - surface sow in spring in a light position. Keep the soil moist by emmersing the pot in 3cm of water. Germination usually takes place quite quickly. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring. Very simple, any part of the root that has a growth bud will grow into a new plant. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Phragmites australis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

A very easily grown plant that thrives in deep moisture retentive soils such as marshes and swamps, whilst it also grows well along the sides of streams, lakes and ponds, in shallow water, ditches and wet wastelands[30][31][11]. Plants are tolerant of moderately saline water[21][11]. The plant is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 31 to 241cm, an annual temperature in the range of 6.6 to 26.6°C and a pH of 4.8 to 8.2[11].

Plants are hardy to about -20°c[31]. This species is very fast growing with a very vigorous and invasive running rootstock that can be 10 metres or more long, it can form very large stands in wetlands[31][19][32]. Difficult to eradicate once established, it is unsuitable for planting into small spaces[31][19][11]. The flowering heads are often used in dried flower arrangements[19].

There are some named forms, selected for their ornamental value[19].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Phragmites australis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Phragmites australis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Phragmites australis
Genus
Phragmites
Family
Gramineae
Imported References
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
aquatic
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Salinity
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Illustration Phragmites australis0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Phragmites australis0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Illustration Phragmites australis0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Illustration Phragmites australis0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.2 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.63.7 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books ISBN 0-394-72811-4 (1979-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.5 Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-090-x (1975-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.6 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.2 Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana ISBN 0-00-634436-4 (1976-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.6 Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0442222009 (1982-00-00)
  11. ? 11.0011.0111.0211.0311.0411.0511.0611.0711.0811.0911.1011.1111.1211.1311.1411.1511.1611.1711.18 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.414.5 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
  16. ? 16.016.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.417.5 Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-23310-3 (1976-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
  19. ? 19.0019.0119.0219.0319.0419.0519.0619.0719.0819.0919.1019.11 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.3 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  22. ? 22.022.1 Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum ISBN 0-7718-8117-7 (1979-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.123.223.3 Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. ()
  24. ? 24.024.124.2 Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press (1988-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.1 Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana ISBN 0-00-635555-2 (1979-00-00)
  26. ? 26.026.1 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-00-00)
  27. ? 27.027.127.227.327.427.5 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
  28. ? 28.028.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
  29. ? 29.029.1 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
  30. ? Grounds. R. Ornamental Grasses. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-1219-9 (1989-00-00)
  31. ? 31.031.131.231.331.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  32. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Conservatory and Indoor Plants Volumes 1 & 2 Pan Books, London. ISBN 0-330-37376-5 (1998-00-00)
  33. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

"image:Illustration Phragmites australis0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Phragmites australis"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyGramineae +
Belongs to genusPhragmites +
Functions asEarth stabiliser +
Has common nameCommon Reed +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partLeaves +, Root +, Seeds +, Stem + and Unknown part +
Has edible useUnknown use + and Sweetener +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure +, High wind + and Salinity +
Has fertility typeWind +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has growth rateVigorous +
Has hardiness zone5 +
Has imageIllustration Phragmites australis0.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBasketry +, Biomass +, Broom +, Cork +, Dye +, Fibre +, Fuel +, Insulation +, Paper +, Thatching +, Weaving +, Pencil + and Furniture +
Has mature height3.6 +
Has mature width3 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiasthmatic +, Antidote +, Antiemetic +, Antitussive +, Depurative +, Diuretic +, Febrifuge +, Lithontripic +, Refrigerant +, Sialagogue +, Stomachic + and Styptic +
Has primary imageIllustration Phragmites australis0.jpg +
Has salinity toleranceTolerant +
Has search namephragmites australis + and x +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy namePhragmites australis +
Has water requirementsaquatic +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +