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Uses

Toxic parts

Two allergens producing strong skin reactions and a haemaglutinating action have been isolated from timothy pollen. The pollen contains several flavonol-glycosides, among them dactylin (isorhamnetin-31,4-diglucoside)[1].

Edible uses

There are no edible uses listed for Phleum pratense.

Material uses

The stems have been used to make hair brushes[2]. The plant can yield up to 15 tonnes of plant material per hectare and is a potential source of biomass[1].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Stored sterile timothy extracts arrested the growth of Sarcoma 45 and other tumour types[1].

Unknown part

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in situ, only just covering the seed. If seed is in short supply, it can be surface sown in a pot in a cold frame. Ensure the pot does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant out in the summer. Division in spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Phleum pratense. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in a sunny position in any ordinary soil[3]. The plant is not drought tolerant[1]. Timothy grass is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 35 to 176cm, an annual temperature range of 4.4 to 18.6°C, and a pH of 4.5 to 7.8[1]. The plant is best adapted to a cool, humid, temperate climate, growing best on rather heavy, deep and moist or even wet soils[1]. Yields are lower on light dry soils and sands[1]. The optimum temperature for growth is 18.3° - 21.6°C varying with day/night temperatures of 15°/10°C and 21°/15°C[1].

Timothy grass is a very variable species that is commonly grown as a hay grass. Several named forms have been develped[4][1]. A short-lived perennial it is a common cause of hayfever[2].

An attractive addition to the wild flower meadow, the inflorescence dries and dyes well so is used in dried flower displays[3].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Phleum pratense. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Phleum pratense.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Phleum pratense
Genus
Phleum
Family
Gramineae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    1 x meters
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Phleum pratense001.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Phleum pratense001.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Phleum pratense001.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Phleum pratense001.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    "image:Phleum pratense001.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.10 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.2 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)

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