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Uses

Toxic parts

Use with caution. Although the seed is used medicinally and as a condiment, it does contain hallucinogenic and narcotic alkaloids[1]. When taken in excess it causes hallucinations and vomiting[1].

Edible uses

Notes

Seed - used as a spice and purifying agent[2][3][4][1]. Some caution is advised because the seed has narcotic properties, inducing a sense of euphoria and releasing inhibitions[5]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed[6][7].

Unknown part

Material uses

A red dye is obtained from the seed[6][7]. It is widely used in Western Asia, especially as a colouring for carpets[8].

The ripe seed contains 3.8 - 5.8% of the alkaloids harmine, harmaline, harmalol and peganine[9]. Ineffective as a contact poison, they are active in vapour form where they are effective against algae, in higher concentrations to water animals and lethal to moulds, bacteria and intestinal parasites[9].

The seed is used as an incense[10].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Alterative[6][5].

The fruit and seed are digestive, diuretic, hallucinogenic, narcotic and uterine stimulant[8][1]. They are taken internally in the treatment of stomach complaints, urinary and sexual disorders, epilepsy, menstrual problems, mental and nervous illnesses[1]. The seed has also been used as an anthelmintic in order to rid the body of tapeworms[9]. This remedy should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a qualified practitioner since excessive doses cause vomiting and hallucinations[1]. The seeds contain the substance 'harmine' which is being used in research into mental disease, encephalitis and inflammation of the brain[8]. Small quantities stimulate the brain and are said to be therapeutic, but in excess harmine depresses the central nervous system[8]. A crude preparation of the seed is more effective than an extract because of the presence of related indoles[8]. Consumption of the seed in quantity induces a sense of euphoria and releases inhibitions. It has been used in the past as a truth drug[5][11]. The oil obtained from the seed is said to be aphrodisiac[8]. The oil is also said to have galactogogue, ophthalmic, soporific and vermifuge properties[8]. The seed is used externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids and baldness[1]. The whole plant is said to be abortifacient, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue and galactogogue[9]. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of rheumatism[9].

The root has been used as a parasiticide in order to kill body lice[9]. It is also used internally in the treatment of rheumatism and nervous conditions[12].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow late spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a sunny part of the greenhouse for their first winter. Be careful not to overwater, especially when the plants are dormant. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer[K]. Division in late spring[1].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Peganum harmala. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a light well-drained but moisture retentive soil and an open position in full sun[13]. Prefers a dry soil[11] and succeeds in poor soils[1].

Although this species comes from dry desert areas, it responds well to cultivation so long as the soil is very well drained[1]. It can tolerate temperatures down to about -20°c if the soil is dry[11].

There is speculation that this plant was the sacred 'Soma' plant, which was used by the ancients of India and Persia as an hallucinogenic aid to understanding the deeper meaning of life[1].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Peganum harmala. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Peganum harmala.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Peganum harmala
Genus
Peganum
Family
Zygophyllaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
8
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Salinity
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
Fertility
?
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki."image:Peganum harmala3.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






References

  1. ? 1.001.011.021.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.101.111.12 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
  3. ? 3.03.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.58.68.78.8 Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants Studio Vista ISBN 0-289-70864-8 (1979-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.39.49.59.69.7 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1976-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  13. ? 13.013.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  14. ? ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (1964-00-00)

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Facts about "Peganum harmala"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyZygophyllaceae +
Belongs to genusPeganum +
Has binomial namePeganum harmala +
Has common nameSyrian Rue +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part +
Has edible useCondiment + and Oil +
Has environmental toleranceSalinity +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has hardiness zone8 +
Has imagePeganum harmala3.JPG +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useDye +, Incense + and Oil +
Has mature height0.6 +
Has mature width0.5 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAbortifacient +, Alterative +, Aphrodisiac +, Digestive +, Diuretic +, Emmenagogue +, Galactogogue +, Hallucinogenic +, Narcotic +, Ophthalmic +, Parasiticide +, Uterine tonic + and Vermifuge +
Has primary imagePeganum harmala3.JPG +
Has salinity toleranceTolerant +
Has search namepeganum harmala + and syrian rue +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy namePeganum harmala +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
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