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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - raw or cooked. The entire plant above ground level can be used as a potherb[1], though it is rather aromatic. It is also used as a flavouring in salads and cooked foods[2][3][1][4].

The flowers make an attractive edible garnish in salads[1].

The fresh or dried leaves are brewed into a refreshing aromatic tea[1][5].

Unknown part

Flowers

Leaves

Material uses

The leaves have been used as an insect repellent[5].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Wild bergamot was often employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially those connected with the digestive system[5]. It is still sometimes used in modern herbalism.

The leaves and flowering stems are carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic and stimulant[6][7]. An infusion is used internally in the treatment of colds, catarrh, headaches, gastric disorders, aching kidneys, to reduce low fevers and soothe sore throats[4][8][5]. Externally, it is applied as a poultice to skin eruptions, cuts etc and as a wash for sore eyes[8][5]. The leaves can be harvested before the plant flowers, or they can be harvested with the flowering stems. They can be used fresh or dried[8]. The plant contains the essential oil 'bergamot oil' which can be inhaled to treat bronchial complaints[4].

The leaves also contain 'thymol', an essential oil that can be used to expel gas from the digestive tract[4].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow mid to late spring in a cold frame. Germination usually takes place within 10 - 40 days at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer.

The seed can also be sown in situ in late summer in areas where the winters are not too severe and will produce larger plants. Cuttings of soft basal shoots in spring. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 - 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, large divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Monarda fistulosa. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Easily grown in ordinary garden soil so long as it is not too dry[9][10]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Requires a moist soil and a sunny position[9][10], though it also succeeds in light shade[11]. This species thrives when grown in a dry soil[233, 238, K]. It prefers alkaline soil conditions[8].

Plants are hardy to at least -25°c[11]. A very ornamental plant, there are several named varieties[9][12]. A good bee plant[10].

Subject to mildew in dry summers[10].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Monarda fistulosa. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Monarda fistulosa.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Monarda fistulosa
Genus
Monarda
Family
Labiatae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.5 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.55.65.7 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (1998-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)
    12. ? Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)
    13. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    "image:Monarda fistulosa flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Monarda fistulosa"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyLabiatae +
    Belongs to genusMonarda +
    Has binomial nameMonarda fistulosa +
    Has common nameWild Bergamot +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partUnknown part +, Flowers + and Leaves +
    Has edible useCondiment +, Unknown use + and Tea +
    Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Bees +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageMonarda fistulosa flowers.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useRepellent +
    Has mature height1.5 +
    Has mature width0.5 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useCarminative +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Pectoral + and Stimulant +
    Has primary imageMonarda fistulosa flowers.jpg +
    Has search namemonarda fistulosa + and wild bergamot +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameMonarda fistulosa +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Monarda fistulosa +, Monarda fistulosa +, Monarda fistulosa +, Monarda fistulosa +, Monarda fistulosa +, Monarda fistulosa +, Monarda fistulosa +, Monarda fistulosa +, Monarda fistulosa + and Monarda fistulosa +