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Uses

Toxic parts

All parts of the plant are poisonous[1][2]. Only slightly so according to one report[3].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked. A delicacy[3]. The fruit is about the size of a small apple, with a strong apple-like scent[4]. Caution is advised in the use of this fruit, it is quite possibly poisonous[K].

Fruit

Material uses

There are no material uses listed for Mandragora officinarum.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Mandrake has a long history of medicinal use, though superstition has played a large part in the uses it has been applied to. It is rarely prescribed in modern herbalism[5], though it contains hyoscine which is the standard pre-operative medication given to soothe patients and reduce bronchial secretions[6]. It is also used to treat travel sickness[6].

The fresh or dried root contains highly poisonous alkaloids and is cathartic, strongly emetic, hallucinogenic and narcotic[4][2][7][8][6]. In sufficient quantities it induces a state of oblivion and was used as an anaesthetic for operations in early surgery[5]. It was much used in the past for its anodyne and soporific properties[4]. In the past, juice from the finely grated root was applied externally to relieve rheumatic pains, ulcers and scrofulous tumours[6]. It was also used internally to treat melancholy, convulsions and mania[6]. When taken internally in large doses, however, it is said to excite delirium and madness[4]. The root should be used with caution, and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner[2][5]. See the notes above on toxicity.

The leaves are harmless and cooling. They have been used for ointments and other external applications to ulcers etc[4].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame in the autumn[9]. The seed can also be sown in spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Root cuttings in winter[10].

Division. This can be rather difficult since the plants resent root disturbance.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Mandragora officinarum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a deep humus-rich light soil and a sheltered position in full sun[5]. It also tolerates some shade[10]. Prefers a circumneutral soil[10] and dislikes chalk or gravel[4]. Plants are liable to rot in wet or ill-draining soils[4].

Plants are hardy to about -15°c[11]. The roots are somewhat carrot-shaped and can be up to 1.2 metres long[4]. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and should be put out into their permanent positions as soon as possible[9].

The root often divides into two and is vaguely suggestive of the human body. In the past it was frequently made into amulets which were believed to bring good fortune, cure sterility etc[6]. There is a superstition that if a person pulls up this root they will be condemned to hell[6]. Therefore in the past people have tied the roots to the bodies of animals and then used these animals in order to pull the roots out of the soil.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Mandragora officinarum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Mandragora officinarum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Mandragora officinarum
Genus
Mandragora
Family
Solanaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
7
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

    "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? Stary. F. Poisonous Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-35666-3 (1983-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.3 Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press ISBN 0-7012-0784-1 (1987-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.64.74.84.9 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.56.66.7 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants Studio Vista ISBN 0-289-70864-8 (1979-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    11. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)

    "image:Mandragore officinale fruits.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Mandragora officinarum"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familySolanaceae +
    Belongs to genusMandragora +
    Has binomial nameMandragora officinarum +
    Has common nameMandrake +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFruit +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf fertile + and Insects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone7 +
    Has imageMandragore officinale fruits.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has mature height0.05 +
    Has mature width0.3 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useCathartic +, Emetic +, Hallucinogenic + and Narcotic +
    Has primary imageMandragore officinale fruits.jpg +
    Has search namemandragora officinarum + and mandrake +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid + and Neutral +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy + and Loamy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameMandragora officinarum +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Mandragora officinarum +, Mandragora officinarum +, Mandragora officinarum +, Mandragora officinarum + and Mandragora officinarum +