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Uses

Toxic parts

Although the fruit of this plant is quite often used medicinally and as a flavouring in various foods and drinks, large doses of the fruit can cause renal damage. Juniper should not be used internally in any quantities by pregnant women[1][2].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked[3][4][5][6]. It is usually dried [7]. The fruit is often used as a flavouring in sauerkraut, stuffings, vegetable pates etc, and is an essential ingredient of gin[8]. The aromatic fruit is used as a pepper substitute according to one report[8]. An essential oil is sometimes distilled from the fruit to be used as a flavouring[8]. Average yields are around 1%[9]. The cones are about 4 - 8mm in diameter and take 2 years to mature[10]. Some caution is advised when using the fruit, see the notes above on toxicity.

The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[11].

A tea is made by boiling the leaves and stems[12]. A tea made from the berries has a spicy gin-like flavour[8].

Unknown part

Fruit

Material uses

A decoction of the branches is used as an anti-dandruff shampoo[13].

Yields the resin 'Sandarac', used in the production of a white varnish[14]. The stems were at one time used as a strewing herb[15]. The whole plant can be burnt as an incense and fumigant[16][17][18]. It makes a good insect repellent[17][13]. The bark is used as cordage[19] and as a tinder[13]. An excellent fuel wood[16].

Many forms of this species are good ground cover plants for sunny situations[20].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Juniper fruits are commonly used in herbal medicine, as a household remedy, and also in some commercial preparations. They are especially useful in the treatment of digestive disorders plus kidney and bladder problems[21].

The fully ripe fruits are strongly antiseptic, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, strongly diuretic, rubefacient, stomachic and tonic[21][9][5][22][23][2][24][25]. They are used in the treatment of cystitis, digestive problems, chronic arthritis, gout and rheumatic conditions[25]. They can be eaten raw or used in a tea[26], but some caution is advised since large doses can irritate the urinary passage[21]. Externally, it is applied as a diluted essential oil, having a slightly warming effect upon the skin and is thought to promote the removal of waste products from underlying tissues[25]. It is, therefore, helpful when applied to arthritic joints etc[25]. The fruits should not be used internally by pregnant women since this can cause an abortion[5]. The fruits also increase menstrual bleeding so should not be used by women with heavy periods[25]. When made into an ointment, they are applied to exposed wounds and prevent irritation by flies[21].

The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is 'Toxin elimination'[27].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[28][29]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[30]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[31].

Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/October in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[31][28].

Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months[28].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Juniperus communis nana. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in hot dry soils and in poor soils. Succeeds in most soils so long as they are well drained[32], preferring a neutral or slightly alkaline soil. Does well in chalky soils[31]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates a pH range from 4 to 8[32]. Succeeds in light woodland but dislikes heavy shade[32]. Established plants are very tolerant of drought[32].

Although the fully dormant plant is cold-tolerant throughout Britain, the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. A very polymorphic species, there is a huge range of cultivars of widely diverse habits[30][29]. At least some forms tolerate maritime exposure[32], there is a thriving colony in an exposed position at Land's End in Cornwall[29]. Seed takes 2 - 3 years to ripen on the plant[30]. Plants are usually very slow growing, often only a few centimetres a year[32]. Resists honey fungus[33]. Plants are sometimes attacked by a rust, this fungus has an aecidial stage on hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)[31].

Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Juniperus communis nana. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Juniperus communis nana.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Juniperus communis nana
Genus
Juniperus
Family
Cupressaceae
Imported References
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
2
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
  • Strong wind
  • Maritime exposure
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
9 x meters
Fertility
Pollinators
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type











References

  1. ? Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (1984-00-00)
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
  3. ? 3.03.1 Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
  4. ? 4.04.1 Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins ISBN 0-00-219060-5 (1974-00-00)
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981-00-00)
  6. ? 6.06.1 Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden. Pitman Publishing ISBN 0-273-00098-5 (1976-00-00)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-7971-2 ()
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
  9. ? 9.09.19.29.3 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
  10. ? 10.010.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. ()
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.3 Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. ()
  14. ? 14.014.1 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968-00-00)
  15. ? 15.015.1 Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press ISBN 0-87857-262-7 (1979-00-00)
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press ISBN 0-946284-51-2 (1985-00-00)
  17. ? 17.017.117.2 Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books ISBN 0-394-72811-4 (1979-00-00)
  18. ? 18.018.1 Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1972-00-00)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (1990-00-00)
  21. ? 21.021.121.221.321.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
  24. ? 24.024.1 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
  25. ? 25.025.125.225.325.425.5 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
  26. ? 26.026.1 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
  27. ? 27.027.1 Westwood. C. Aromatherapy - A guide for home use. Amberwood Publishing Ltd ISBN 0-9517723-0-9 (1993-00-00)
  28. ? 28.028.128.2 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
  29. ? 29.029.129.2 Rushforth. K. Conifers. Christopher Helm ISBN 0-7470-2801-X (1987-00-00)
  30. ? 30.030.130.230.3 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
  31. ? 31.031.131.231.3 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
  32. ? 32.032.132.232.332.432.5 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979-00-00)
  33. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)
  34. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962-00-00)


Facts about "Juniperus communis nana"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyCupressaceae +
Belongs to genusJuniperus +
Functions asGround cover +
Has binomial nameJuniperus communis nana +
Has common nameJuniper +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partUnknown part + and Fruit +
Has edible useCoffee +, Condiment +, Unknown use + and Tea +
Has environmental toleranceMaritime exposure +, High wind + and Drought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Wind +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateSlow +
Has hardiness zone2 +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useFibre +, Fuel +, Hair care +, Incense +, Repellent +, Resin +, Strewing + and Tinder +
Has mature height9 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAntiseptic +, Aromatic +, Carminative +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Rubefacient +, Stomachic + and Tonic +
Has search namejuniperus communis nana + and juniper +
Has shade toleranceLight shade +
Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy +, Clay + and Heavy clay +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameJuniperus communis nana +
Has water requirementsmoderate +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSoil surface +
Is deciduous or evergreenEvergreen +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureYes +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +
Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana +, Juniperus communis nana + and Juniperus communis nana +