Uses

Toxic parts

Some reports suggest that the fruit is poisonous[1][2], whilst it may be very acid it is most definitely not poisonous[3].

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw or cooked. Very rich in vitamin C (120mg per 100g)[4] and vitamin A[5], they are too acid when raw for most peoples tastes[6][7], though most children seem to relish them[K]. Used for making fruit juice, it is high in vitamins and has an attractive aroma[8]. It is being increasingly used in making fruit juices, especially when mixed with other fruits, because of its reputed health benefits[9]. The fruits of some species and cultivars (not specified) contain up to 9.2% oil[9]. The fruit is very freely borne along the stems[K] and is about 6 - 8mm in diameter[10]. The fruit becomes less acid after a frost or if cooked[4]. The fruit is ripe from late September and usually hangs on the plants all winter if not eaten by the birds. It is best used before any frosts since the taste and quality of frosted berries quickly deteriorates[9].

Fruit

Material uses

Very tolerant of maritime exposure[11][12][13][14], it can be used as a shelter hedge. It dislikes much trimming[13]. A very thorny plant, it quickly makes an impenetrable barrier. Sea buckthorn has an extensive root system and suckers vigorously and so has been used in soil conservation schemes, especially on sandy soils. The fibrous and suckering root system acts to bind the sand[15][16]. Because the plant grows quickly, even in very exposed conditions, and also adds nitrogen to the soil, it can be used as a pioneer species to help the re-establishment of woodland in difficult areas. Because the plant is very light-demanding it will eventually be out-competed by the woodland trees and so will not out-stay its welcome[K]. The seeds contain 12 - 13% of a slow-drying oil[17]. The vitamin-rich fruit juice is used cosmetically in face-masks etc[18]. A yellow dye is obtained from the fruit[4]. A yellow dye is obtained from the stems, root and foliage[19]. A blackish-brown dye is obtained from the young leaves and shoots[4]. Wood - tough, hard, very durable, fine-grained. Used for fine carpentry, turning etc[20][21][4]. The wood is also used for fuel and charcoal[22].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The twigs and leaves contain 4 - 5% tannin[17]. They are astringent and vermifuge[23][2]. The tender branches and leaves contain bio-active substances which are used to produce an oil that is quite distinct from the oil produced from the fruit. Yields of around 3% of oil are obtained[17]. This oil is used as an ointment for treating burns[9]. A high-quality medicinal oil is made from the fruit and used in the treatment of cardiac disorders, it is also said to be particularly effective when applied to the skin to heal burns, eczema and radiation injury, and is taken internally in the treatment of stomach and intestinal diseases[9]. The fruit is astringent and used as a tonic[18][24]. The freshly-pressed juice is used in the treatment of colds, febrile conditions, exhaustion etc[18]. The fruit is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers[9]. The juice is also a component of many vitamin-rich medicaments and cosmetic preparations such as face-creams and toothpastes[18]. A decoction of the fruit has been used as a wash to treat skin irritation and eruptions[24].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Secondary canopy

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a sunny position in a cold frame[25]. Germination is usually quick and good although 3 months cold stratification may improve the germination rate. Alternatively the seed can be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring into their permanent positions. Male seedlings, in spring, have very prominent axillary buds whilst females are clear and smooth at this time[25]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June/July in a frame[10]. Difficult[26]. This is the easiest method of vegetative propagation[9]. Cuttings of mature wood in autumn[10]. Difficult[26]. The cuttings should be taken at the end of autumn or very early in the spring before the buds burst. Store them in sand and peat until April, cut into 7 - 9cm lengths and plant them in a plastic tent with bottom heat[9]. Rooting should take place within 2 months and they can be put in their permanent positions in the autumn[9]. Division of suckers in the winter. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions and usually establish well and quickly[K]. Layering in autumn[10].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Hippophae rhamnoides. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most soils[10], including poor ones[15], so long as they are not too dry[14][10]. Grows well by water and in fairly wet soils[14]. Established plants are very drought resistant[15]. Requires a sunny position[27], seedlings failing to grow in a shady position and mature shrubs quickly dying if overshadowed by taller plants[15]. Does well in very sandy soils[28][15]. Very tolerant of maritime exposure[13]. Plants are fairly slow growing[13]. Although usually found near the coast in the wild, they thrive when grown inland[6] and are hardy to about -25°c[29]. A very ornamental plant[28][6], it is occasionally cultivated, especially in N. Europe, for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties[5]. 'Leikora' is a free-fruiting form, developed for its ornamental value. Members of this genus are attracting considerable interest from breeding institutes for their nutrient-rich fruits that can promote the general health of the body (see edible and medicinal uses below)[9]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[26][15][10]. Plants produce abundant suckers, especially when grown on sandy soils[15]. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. The sexes of plants cannot be distinguished before flowering, but on flowering plants the buds of male plants in winter are conical and conspicuous whilst female buds are smaller and rounded[6]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[10].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Hippophae rhamnoides. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Hippophae rhamnoides.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Hippophae rhamnoides
Genus
Hippophae
Family
Elaeagnaceae
Imported References
Medicinal uses
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
3
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Drought
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
Herbaceous or Woody
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
Mature Size
6 x 2.5
Fertility
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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References

  1. ? Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-33545-3 (1975/01/01)
  2. ? 2.02.12.2 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969/01/01)
  3. ? Frohne. D. and Pf?nder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe ISBN 0723408394 (1984/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation (1968/01/01)
  5. ? 5.05.15.2 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.46.5 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.1 Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press (1945/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.1 Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading ISBN 0704909820 (1986/01/01)
  9. ? 9.009.019.029.039.049.059.069.079.089.099.109.11 Matthews. V. The New Plantsman. Volume 1, 1994. Royal Horticultural Society ISBN 1352-4186 (1994/01/01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.410.510.610.710.810.9 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992/01/01)
  11. ? 11.011.1 Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0900629649 (1974/01/01)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Arnold-Forster. Shrubs for the Milder Counties. ()
  13. ? 13.013.113.213.313.4 Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1984/01/01)
  14. ? 14.014.114.214.3 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992/01/01)
  15. ? 15.015.115.215.315.415.515.615.7 Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold (1979/01/01)
  16. ? 16.016.1 Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. ISBN 0-330-30725-8 (1990/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.117.217.317.4 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986/01/01)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.318.418.5 Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn ISBN 0-600-37216-2 (1981/01/01)
  19. ? 19.019.1 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984/01/01)
  20. ? 20.020.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959/01/01)
  21. ? 21.021.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974/01/01)
  22. ? 22.022.1 Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (1972/01/01)
  23. ? 23.023.1 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984/01/01)
  24. ? 24.024.124.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996/01/01)
  25. ? 25.025.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948/01/01)
  26. ? 26.026.126.2 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987/01/01)
  27. ? Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972/01/01)
  28. ? 28.028.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951/01/01)
  29. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989/01/01)
  30. ? Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press (1962/01/01)



"image:Hippophae rhamnoides 051013.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Facts about "Hippophae rhamnoides"RDF feed
Article is incompleteFalse +
Article requires citationsFalse +
Article requires cleanupFalse +
Belongs to familyElaeagnaceae +
Belongs to genusHippophae +
Has binomial nameHippophae rhamnoides +
Has common nameSea Buckthorn +
Has drought toleranceTolerant +
Has edible partFruit +
Has edible useUnknown use +
Has environmental toleranceDrought +
Has fertility typeSelf sterile +
Has flowers of typeDioecious +
Has growth rateModerate +
Has hardiness zone3 +
Has imageHippophae rhamnoides 051013.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useCharcoal +, Cosmetic +, Dye +, Fuel +, Oil + and Wood +
Has mature height6 +
Has mature width2.5 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useAstringent +, Cancer +, Cardiac +, Poultice +, Tonic + and Vermifuge +
Has primary imageHippophae rhamnoides 051013.jpg +
Has search namehippophae rhamnoides + and sea buckthorn +
Has seed requiring scarificationFalse +
Has seed requiring stratificationFalse +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
Has taxonomy nameHippophae rhamnoides +
Has water requirementshigh +
Inhabits ecosystem nicheSecondary canopy +
Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
Tolerates air pollutionFalse +
Tolerates maritime exposureFalse +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilFalse +
Tolerates windFalse +
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