The immature seed is cooked and used like peas or eaten raw in salads. The strongly roasted and ground seeds are used as a coffee substitute. The young seedpods are cooked and used like French beans. An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. It is cooked or can be used as a dressing in salads etc and for manufacture of margarine and shortening.Young leaves - raw or cooked.
Lecithin phospholipids, obtained as a by-product of the oil industry, are used as a wetting and stabilizing agent in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, leather, paint, plastic, soap, and detergent industries. Both the meal and the soy bean protein are used in the manufacture of synthetic fibre, adhesives, textile sizing, waterproofing, fire-fighting foam and many other uses. The plant is sometimes grown as a green manure. The straw can be used to make paper, stiffer than that made from wheat straw.The plant is an excellent source of biomass. The oil from the seeds can be used as a diesel fuel whilst the stems can be burnt as a fuel.
The bruised leaves are applied to snakebite. The flowers are used in the treatment of blindness and opacity of the cornea. The ashes of the stems are applied to granular haemorrhoids or fungus growths on the anus. The immature seedpods are chewed to a pulp and applied to corneal and smallpox ulcers. The seed is antidote. It is considered to be specific for the healthy functioning of bowels, heart, kidney, liver and stomach. The seed sprouts are constructive, laxative and resolvent. They show an oestrogen-like activity in the body and are also antispasmodic.The sprous are used in the treatment of oedema, dysuria, chest fullness, decreased perspiration, the initial stages of flu and arthralgia. A decoction of the bark or root is astringent. Soybean diets are valued for treating acidosis. Since soybean oil has a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid, it is recommended, like safflower, poppy seed, etc. to combat hypercholesteremia. Commercial grades of natural lecithin, which are often derived from soybean, are reported to contain a potent vasopressor. Medicinally lecithin is indicated as a lipotropic agent.Soybean is listed as a major starting material for stigmasterol, once known as an antistiffness factor. Sitosterol, also a soy by-product, has been used to replace diosgenin in some antihypertensive drugs.
Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Glycine max. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.
Soya is one of the most widely cultivated plants in the world, being grown for its oil and protein rich edible seed, there are many named varieties. A subtropical plant, but its cultivation extends from the tropics to as far north as latitude 52°N. The species, and most of its cultivars, is a short-day plant and does not flower or set seed unless the daylight hours are less than 13 hours per day. There are three basic types of soya bean, those with green seeds are considered to be the most tender and best flavoured and are the type best suited for northern climates. Black seeded forms are normally used dried and yellow seeded forms are used for making soya milk, flour etc. The plant requires a hot summer with a mean July temperature between 16 and 18°c and a dry autumn if it is to do well in Britain, though it is as hardy as the runner bean, Phaseolus coccineus. The best crops outdoors in Britain are obtained if the plants are started off in a greenhouse and planted out in late spring although a direct sowing outdoors in early May can succeed in good summers but yields will then normally be low. Many cultivars will not flower in the shorter days of late summer in the northern hemisphere and so are not suitable for growing in Britain. Some botanists separate the cultivated forms of soya from this species and call them G. soja. Sieb.&Zucc.This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Soybean soils must contain the proper nitrogen-fixing bacteria. When grown on the same land for 2 - 3 successive years, increasing yields are obtained year after year. Seed can be purchased that has been treated with this rhizobium, it is unnecessary on soils with a pH below 5.5 but can be helpful on other soils. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.
Problems, pests & diseases
Associations & Interactions
There are no interactions listed for Glycine max. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? to add it.
Polycultures & Guilds
This table shows all the data stored for this plant.
- Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO ISBN 0112425291 (1984-00-00)
- Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN 0-486-20459-6 (1972-00-00)
- Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber (1960-00-00)
- Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
- Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (1983-00-00)
- Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press (1975-00-00)
- Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
- Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (1969-00-00)
- Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
- Brooklyn Botanic Garden Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2. Brooklyn Botanic Garden (1986-00-00)
- Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
- Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press (1952-00-00)
- Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
- Larkcom J. Oriental Vegetables John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 (1991-00-00)
- Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
- Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
- Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila ISBN 92 9061 120 0 (1998-00-00)
- Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
- Simmons A. E. Simmons' Manual of Fruit. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7607-1 (1978-00-00)
- F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
- Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
- Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. ()
- Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution (1965-00-00)
"image:CDC edamame.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.