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Uses

Toxic parts

Leaves contain the glycoside Phillyrin[1], its potency is unknown.

Edible uses

Notes

Young leaves - cooked[2][3][1]. Some caution is advised due to the presence of a glycoside[1]. The leaves are rich in rutin[4].

Leaves

Unknown part

Material uses

The sub-species F. suspensa sieboldii is a lax grower that roots freely where the branches touch the ground. It makes a very good tall ground cover when planted about 2.5 metres apart each way[5].
There are no material uses listed for Forsythia suspensa.

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Lian Qiao has been used in Chinese herbalism for over 4,000 years and is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs[4]. A bitter tasting pungent herb with an antiseptic effect, it is chiefly used to treat boils, carbuncles, mumps and infected neck glands[6].

The fruit is a bitter astringent herb that stimulates the heart, nervous system and gall bladder[7]. It contains vitamin P, which is used to strengthen capillaries[7]. The fruit is also antidote, antiphlogistic, antitussive, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative and tonic[8][9][10][11][12][4][7]. It is used internally in the treatment of acute infectious diseases such as mumps, and also for tonsillitis, urinary tract infections allergic rashes etc[7]. The fruit is harvested when fully ripe and is dried for use in decoctions[7]. The plant has a similar action to Lonicera japonica and is usually used in combination with that species to achieve a stronger action[11]. The flowers have a broad-spectrum antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, haemolytic streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Bacillus typhi, Mycobacterium tuberculi etc[11]. The plant is vermifuge, though the part used is not stated[8][9][10][12]. The leaves are febrifuge and are also poulticed onto ulcerated glands and haemorrhoids[4]. A decoction of the leaves and twigs is used in the treatment of breast cancer[13].

The root is used in the treatment of cancer, colds, fever and jaundice[4].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Soil surface

Ecological Functions

Ground cover

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates within 2 months[K]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood 10 - 15cm taken at a node, July/August in a frame. Plant out in autumn or spring. A very high percentage, they root within 3 weeks[14]. Cuttings of mature wood in a sheltered outdoor bed. Good percentage[14].

Layering in spring or summer. Plants often self-layer[K].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Forsythia suspensa. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in all soil types[15] but prefers a rich soil. Succeeds in limey soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. It prefers a sunny position but succeeds in semi shade though it is apt to get leggy if grown in the shade of trees[16]. Succeeds against a north-facing wall[17].

Plants are hardy to about -25°c[18]. The flowers are produced quite early in the year and are frost-resistant[16]. Plants are medium to fast growing[15]. Flowers are produced on wood that is more than one year old[15]. Any pruning is best done after the plant has finished flowering[16]. A very ornamental plant, there are several named varieties[16].

This species is notably susceptible to honey fungus[19].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Forsythia suspensa. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Forsythia suspensa.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Forsythia suspensa
Genus
Forsythia
Family
Oleaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
5
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
permanent shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    5 x 5 meters
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.3 Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.54.6 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons ISBN 0-460-12609-1 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.2 Brooklyn Botanic Garden Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2. Brooklyn Botanic Garden (1986-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
    10. ? 10.010.110.2 Kariyone. T. Atlas of Medicinal Plants. ()
    11. ? 11.011.111.211.3 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.2 Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre ()
    13. ? 13.013.1 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.2 Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. ISBN 0-670-82929-3 (1990-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.116.216.3 Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray ISBN 0-7195-5043-2 (1992-00-00)
    17. ? Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls Collins ISBN 0-00-219220-0 (1983-00-00)
    18. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.1 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    20. ? Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PFAFimport-11
    21. ? [Flora of China] (1994-00-00)

    Cite error: <ref> tag with name "PFAFimport-109" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.

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    Facts about "Forsythia suspensa"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyOleaceae +
    Belongs to genusForsythia +
    Functions asGround cover +
    Has common nameLian Qiao +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partLeaves + and Unknown part +
    Has edible useUnknown use + and Rutin +
    Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Insects +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has growth rateModerate +
    Has hardiness zone5 +
    Has imageForsythia suspensa4.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has mature height5 +
    Has mature width5 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAntidote +, Antiphlogistic +, Antitussive +, Cancer +, Diuretic +, Emmenagogue +, Febrifuge +, Laxative +, Tonic + and Vermifuge +
    Has primary imageForsythia_suspensa4.jpg +
    Has search nameforsythia suspensa + and x +
    Has shade tolerancePermanent shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
    Has soil teheavy clayture preferenceHeavy clay +
    Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
    Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
    Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomy nameForsythia suspensa +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Inhabits ecosystem nicheSoil surface +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +