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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

The flower heads or petals[1][2][3] are parboiled and served as a salad with tofu and seasoned with vinegar or soya sauce[4]. They can also be prepared as tempura, pickled, dried or added to soups[4]. The petals contain about 1.9% protein, 0.9% fat, 5.3% carbohydrate, 0.7% ash[3].

Leaves - cooked[1][5][3]. Used as fritters, they are aromatic[4]. Some varieties have been selected for their low bitterness[2]. An aromatic tea is made from the leaves[4].

A tangy aromatic tea is made from the flowers or flower petals[3]. For a sweeter tea only the petals are used[4].

Flowers

Leaves

Unknown part

Tea

Material uses

Plants have been grown indoors in pots in order to help remove toxins from the atmosphere. It is especially good at removing chemical vapours, especially formaldehyde, benzene and ammonia[6].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Chrysanthemum flowers, known in China as Ju Hua, are a bitter aromatic herb that has been used for thousands of years in Chinese medicine[7][8]. The flower heads are drunk as a refreshing tisane and are used to improve vision, soothe sore eyes, relieve headaches, counter infections etc[8].

They are antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, carminative, depurative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, ophthalmic, refrigerant and sedative[2][9][10][11][7]. Taken internally they dilate the coronary artery, thus increasing the flow of blood to the heart, and so are used in the treatment of hypertension, coronary heart diseases and angina[7]. The flowers are harvested when fully open in the autumn and are dried for later use[7]. In China they are steamed before being dried to make them less bitter[7].

The leaf juice is smeared onto wounds[11].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - sow spring to early summer in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. It usually germinates in 10 - 18 days at 15°c but if it does not germinate within 4 weeks then try chilling the seed for 3 weeks in the salad compartment of a fridge[12]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. This is a hybrid species and so will not breed true from seed. Division in spring. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Dendranthema x grandiflorum. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Succeeds in most well-drained fertile soils in a sunny position[13][14].

This species is not fully hardy in Britain, many of its cultivars requiring greenhouse protection in the colder areas of the country[13]. The chrysanthemum is widely cultivated as an ornamental flowering plant[14], there are many named varieties. It is also occasionally grown in the Orient for its edible leaves, a number of cultivars have been developed with leaves that are low in bitterness[2].

It has been proposed (1999) to restore this species to Chrysanthemum as C. x morifolium Ramat. since the plant is so widely known under this name.

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Dendranthema x grandiflorum. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Dendranthema x grandiflorum.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Dendranthema x grandiflorum
Genus
Dendranthema
Family
Compositae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type











    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.5 Brooklyn Botanic Garden Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2. Brooklyn Botanic Garden (1986-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.4 Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre (1977-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.44.5 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.1 Wolverton. B. C. Eco-Friendly House Plants. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. London. ISBN 0-297-83484-3 (1996-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.2 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press ISBN 0-914294-92-X ()
    10. ? 10.010.1 Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles (1985-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    12. ? Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.1 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)