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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - raw. Sweet and delicious[1][2][3][4]. The juice is often extracted from the fruit and sold as a refreshing and healthy drink or used in jellies, ice cream etc[5].

The rind of the fruit is often used as a flavouring in cakes etc or made into marmalade[1][3][5].

Flowers - cooked as a vegetable or made into a tea[5].

Unknown part

Flowers

Fruit

Material uses

A semi-drying oil obtained from the seed is used in soap making[3][4]. An essential oil from the peel is used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines[1][3][4].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Citrus species contain a wide range of active ingredients and research is still underway in finding uses for them. They are rich in vitamin C, flavonoids, acids and volatile oils. They also contain coumarins such as bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight. Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin, though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people[6]. Some of the plants more recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialized cosmetics[6].

The fruit is appetizer and blood purifier[7]. It is used to allay thirst in people with fevers and also treats catarrh[7]. The fruit juice is useful in the treatment of bilious affections and bilious diarrhoea[7]. The fruit rind is carminative and tonic[7]. The fresh rind is rubbed on the face as a cure for acne[7].

The dried peel is used in the treatment of anorexia, colds, coughs etc[8].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

The seed is best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it ripe after thoroughly rinsing it[9][10]. Sow stored seed in March in a greenhouse[2]. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 3 weeks at 13°c. Seedlings are liable to damp off so they must be watered with care and kept well ventilated. The seed is usually polyembrionic, two or more seedlings arise from each seed and they are genetically identical to the parent but they do not usually carry any virus that might be present in the parent plant[10]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least three growing seasons before trying them outdoors. Plant them out in the summer and give them some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.

Layering in October.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Citrus sinensis. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a moderately heavy loam with a generous amount of compost and sand added and a very sunny position[1][10]. Prefers a pH between 5 and 6[10]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. Plants are intolerant of water logging[2]. When growing plants in pots, a compost comprising equal quantities of loam and leafmould plus a little charcoal should produce good results[11]. Do not use manure since Citrus species dislike it[11]. When watering pot plants it is important to neither overwater or underwater since the plant will soon complain by turning yellow and dying. Water only when the compost is almost dry, but do not allow it to become completely dry[11].

The sweet orange is widely grown for its edible fruit in warm temperate and tropical zones, there are many named varieties[5]. In Britain it can be grown in a pot placed outdoors in the summer and brought into a greenhouse during the winter[2]. Plants are almost hardy in the mildest areas of Britain[1] but the fruit is insipid if it is developed when the mean temperature is below 18°c[2]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. The flowers are sweetly scented[12].

Plants dislike root disturbance and so should be placed into their permanent positions when young. If growing them in pots, great care must be exercised when potting them on into larger containers[6].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Citrus sinensis. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Citrus sinensis.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Citrus sinensis
Genus
Citrus
Family
Rutaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
9
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    9 x meters
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

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    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.6 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.42.5 Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles ISBN 0-7153-5531-7 (1972-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.5 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (1974-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.3 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.47.5 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (1986-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-917256-20-4 (1985-00-00)
    9. ? Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.110.210.310.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.111.2 Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Conservatory and Indoor Plants Volumes 1 & 2 Pan Books, London. ISBN 0-330-37376-5 (1998-00-00)
    12. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)

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