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Uses

Toxic parts

The plant is poisonous in large doses[1]. Large doses irritate nerve centres and may cause abortion[2].

Edible uses

Notes

Leaves - cooked[3]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Leaves

Material uses

Both the growing and the dried plant can be used to repel bugs and fleas[4].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Black cohosh is a traditional remedy of the North American Indians where it was used mainly to treat women's problems, especially painful periods and problems associated with the menopause[5]. A popular and widely used herbal remedy, it is effective in the treatment of a range of diseases[6].

The root is alterative, antidote, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, astringent, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hypnotic, sedative, tonic and vasodilator[6][1][7][8][9][10][11][12]. It is harvested in the autumn as the leaves die down, then cut into pieces and dried[6]. The root is toxic in overdose, it should be used with caution and be completely avoided by pregnant women[12]. See also the notes above on toxicity. The medically active ingredients are not soluble in water so a tincture of the root is normally used[12]. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, as a sedative and an emmenagogue[13]. It is traditionally important in the treatment of women's complaints, acting specifically on the uterus it eases uterine cramps and has been used to help in childbirth[12][2]. Research has shown that the root has oestrogenic activity and is thought to reduce levels of pituitary luteinizing hormone, thereby decreasing the ovaries production of progesterone[12][5]. The root is also hypoglycaemic, sedative and anti-inflammatory[12]. Used in conjunction with St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) it is 78% effective in treating hot flushes and other menopausal problems[5]. An extract of the root has been shown to strengthen the male reproductive organ in rats[12]. The root contains salicylic acid, which makes it of value in the treatment of various rheumatic problems - it is particularly effective in the acute stage of rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica and chorea[2]. Its sedative action makes it useful for treating a range of other complaints including tinnitus and high blood pressure[5].

The roots are used to make a homeopathic remedy[14]. This is used mainly for women, especially during pregnancy[14].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[15]. Only just cover the seed. It germinates in 1 - 12 months or even longer at 15°c[16]. The seed does not store well and soon loses its viability[17], stored seed may germinate better if given 6 - 8 weeks warm stratification at 15°c and then 8 weeks cold stratification[16]. Prick out the young seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer[K]. Division in spring or autumn[15]. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Cimicifuga racemosa. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a moist humus rich soil and some shade[15][18][17]. Grows well in dappled shade[19][20][21]. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil[15] and tolerates drier soils[22].

Plants are hardy to at least -20°c[23]. A very ornamental species[22]. The flowers have an unusual, slightly unpleasant smell[24] which is thought to repel insects[13]. Plants grow and flower well in Britain, though they seldom if ever ripen their seed[6].

A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes[25].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Cimicifuga racemosa. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Cimicifuga racemosa.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Cimicifuga racemosa
Genus
Cimicifuga
Family
Ranunculaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
Shade
partial shade
Soil PH
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    ?
    Herbaceous or Woody
    ?
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    ?
    Mature Size
    Fertility
    ?
    Pollinators
    ?
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type











    References

    1. ? 1.01.11.2 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (1984-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.12.22.3 Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. ISBN 0-85613-067-2 (1979-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing (1976-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.1 Coventry. B. O. Wild Flowers of Kashmir Raithby, Lawrence and Co. (1923-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.4 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.26.36.4 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.1 Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. ()
    10. ? 10.010.1 Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. ()
    11. ? 11.011.1 Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants Studio Vista ISBN 0-289-70864-8 (1979-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.312.412.512.612.7 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    13. ? 13.013.113.2 Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books ISBN 0-449-90589-6 (1980-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.2 Castro. M. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. Macmillan. London. ISBN 0-333-55581-3 (1990-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.115.215.3 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
    17. ? 17.017.117.2 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    18. ? Sanders. T. W. Popular Hardy Perennials. Collingridge (1926-00-00)
    19. ? Knight. F. P. Plants for Shade. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 0-900629-78-9 (1980-00-00)
    20. ? Brown. Shade Plants for Garden and Woodland. ()
    21. ? RHS. The Garden. Volume 112. Royal Horticultural Society (1987-00-00)
    22. ? 22.022.1 Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (1990-00-00)
    23. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30936-9 (1991-00-00)
    24. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    25. ? Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds. Frederick Muller Ltd ISBN 0-584-10141-4 (1977-00-00)
    26. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)


    Facts about "Cimicifuga racemosa"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyRanunculaceae +
    Belongs to genusCimicifuga +
    Has binomial nameCimicifuga racemosa +
    Has common nameBlack Cohosh +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partLeaves +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useRepellent +
    Has mature height1.5 +
    Has mature width0.6 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAlterative +, Antidote +, Antiinflammatory +, Antirheumatic +, Antispasmodic +, Astringent +, Birthing aid +, Cardiotonic +, Diaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Emmenagogue +, Expectorant +, Homeopathy +, Hypnotic +, Hypoglycaemic +, Sedative +, Tonic +, Vasodilator + and Women's complaints +
    Has search namecimicifuga racemosa + and black cohosh +
    Has shade tolerancePartial shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral + and Alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameCimicifuga racemosa +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa +, Cimicifuga racemosa + and Cimicifuga racemosa +