This article has been marked as incomplete and in need of reformatting. Please help us to improve it.

Practical Plants is a community wiki. You can edit this page to improve the quality of the information it contains. To learn how, please read the editing guide.

Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Fruit - used as a pickle like olives[1][2][3]. The fruit is up to 18mm long, it has a thin pulp and contains 1 - 3 rounded seeds[4].

Fruit

Material uses

Wood - hard, heavy, close grained, weighing about 39lb per cubic foot[5][4]. Of no commercial value because of the small size of the tree[6].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The fringe tree was commonly used by the North American Indians and European settlers alike to treat inflammations of the eye, mouth ulcers and spongy gums[7]. In modern herbalism it is considered to be one of the most reliable remedies for disorders of the liver and gall bladder[8].

The dried root bark is alterative, aperient, cholagogue, diuretic, febrifuge and tonic[9][10][11][12][8]. It is used in the treatment of gallbladder pain, gallstones, jaundice and chronic weakness[7]. A tincture of the bark was once widely used internally in the treatment of hypertrophy of the liver, jaundice, bilious headache, gallstones, rheumatism etc[12][8]. The root bark also appears to strengthen function in the pancreas and spleen whilst anecdotal evidence indicates that it may substantially reduce sugar levels in the urine[7]. Fringe tree also stimulates the appetite and digestion and is an excellent remedy for chronic illness, especially where the liver has been affected[7]. A tea or a poultice can be made from the root bark for external use as a wash for wounds, inflammations, sores, infections etc[9][12].

The roots can be harvested at any time of the year, the bark is peeled from them and is then dried for later use[8].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[13][14]. Germination is usually good. Stored seed can be sown in February or March in a warm greenhouse according to one report[15] but germination can them take 18 months at 15 - 20°c[16]. Alternatively the stored seed can be pre-soaked for 2 - 3 hours in warm water and then given 3 months warm stratification followed by 3 months at 2 - 4°c[16]. Germination can then be fairly rapid. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions the following spring or early summer. Layering in early summer as soon as new growth is long enough. Takes 15 months[15]. Layering can also be carried out in spring or autumn[14].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Chionanthus virginicus. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a good loamy neutral to acid soil in full sun[1. 11, 182, 200]. Succeeds in partial shade but does not fruit so well in such a position[14]. Plants flower more freely in areas with hotter summers[17] and are slow-growing in areas with cool summers[8]..

A very ornamental plant[18][19], it is hardy to about -25°c[20]. A fast-growing but short-lived tree in the wild, where it is remarkably free from diseases or insect pests[6]. Plants begin to flower and bear fruit when they are 5 - 8 years old[4]. The flowers have a delicate sweet perfume[21]. Dioecious, male and female plants must be grown if seed and fruit is required. This species transplants easily[19].

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[14].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Chionanthus virginicus. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Chionanthus virginicus.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Chionanthus virginicus
Genus
Chionanthus
Family
Oleaceae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Material uses & Functions
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Functions
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
4
Heat Zone
?
Water
moderate
Sun
full sun
Shade
light shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Ecosystems
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Life
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    5 x 3 meters
    Fertility
    Pollinators
    Flower Colour
    ?
    Flower Type

    "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


    "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.






    References

    1. ? 1.01.1 Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health (1973-00-00)
    2. ? 2.02.1 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (1984-00-00)
    3. ? 3.03.1 Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 (1990-00-00)
    4. ? 4.04.14.24.34.4 Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292780206 (1982-00-00)
    5. ? 5.05.1 Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-20278-X (1965-00-00)
    6. ? 6.06.16.2 Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0442238622 (1980-00-00)
    7. ? 7.07.17.27.37.4 Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London ISBN 9-780751-303148 (1996-00-00)
    8. ? 8.08.18.28.38.48.5 Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31 (1995-00-00)
    9. ? 9.09.19.2 Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin ISBN 0-14-046-440-9 (1984-00-00)
    10. ? 10.010.1 Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books ISBN 0-553-23827-2 (1983-00-00)
    11. ? 11.011.1 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (1959-00-00)
    12. ? 12.012.112.212.3 Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0395467225 (1990-00-00)
    13. ? Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. (1990-00-00)
    14. ? 14.014.114.214.314.4 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (1992-00-00)
    15. ? 15.015.1 Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co (1948-00-00)
    16. ? 16.016.1 Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press ISBN 0942375009 (1987-00-00)
    17. ? Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-86318-386-7 (1990-00-00)
    18. ? F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (1951-00-00)
    19. ? 19.019.119.2 Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray (1981-00-00)
    20. ? Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books ISBN 0-330-30258-2 (1989-00-00)
    21. ? Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090-5440-8 (1994-00-00)
    22. ? Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. (1950-00-00)

    "image:Chionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Chionanthus virginicus"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyOleaceae +
    Belongs to genusChionanthus +
    Has binomial nameChionanthus virginicus +
    Has common nameFringe Tree +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partFruit +
    Has edible useUnknown use +
    Has fertility typeSelf sterile + and Bees +
    Has flowers of typeDioecious +
    Has growth rateVigorous +
    Has hardiness zone4 +
    Has imageChionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG +
    Has lifecycle typePerennial +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useWood +
    Has mature height5 +
    Has mature width3 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAlterative +, Aperient +, Cholagogue +, Diuretic +, Febrifuge + and Tonic +
    Has primary imageChionanthus virginicus (detail) - Tower Hill Botanic Garden.JPG +
    Has search namechionanthus virginicus + and fringe tree +
    Has shade toleranceLight shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameChionanthus virginicus +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is deciduous or evergreenDeciduous +
    Is herbaceous or woodyWoody +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF material use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedNo +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedNo +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Uses mature size measurement unitMeters +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Chionanthus virginicus +, Chionanthus virginicus +, Chionanthus virginicus +, Chionanthus virginicus +, Chionanthus virginicus +, Chionanthus virginicus +, Chionanthus virginicus + and Chionanthus virginicus +