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Toxic parts

The plant contains psychoactive compounds[1][2]. Its action is almost entirely on the higher nerve centres, it can produce an exhilarating intoxication with hallucinations and is a widely used street drug[3]. It has also been widely used in the past by mystics and sages wanting to communicate with the higher forces of nature. The nature of its effect does depend much on the temperament of the individual[3]. The use of cannabis is considered to be far less dangerous than alcohol or tobacco in medical literature [4] and there have been no documented cases of a human ever dying of cannabis overdose[5], nevertheless its use has been banned in many countries of the world including most western countries, New Zealand and Australia.

Leaves, Flowers, Seeds

Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabidiol, Cannabinol, Tetrahydrocannabivarin low toxicity
Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); it is one of 400 compounds in the plant, including other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV).

Edible uses


Seed - raw or cooked. It can be parched and eaten as a condiment or made into cakes and fried[6][7][8][9]. The seed is quite tasty, but it is very difficult to separate from the husk. We have tried grinding the seed, husk and all, and eating it this way, but it does then have a very gritty texture[K]. The seed contains about 27.1% protein, 25.6% fat, 7.4% carbohydrate, 6.1% ash[10]. A nutritional analysis is available calculated on a zero moisture basis[11]. A highly nutritious edible oil, rich in essential fatty acids, is obtained from the seed[12][9]. Leaves. Used in soups[13]. The leaves contain 0.215% carotene[10].


Unknown part


Material uses

A drying oil is obtained from the seed. It is used for lighting, soap making, paints, varnish etc[3][14][15][16][17][18]. In the temperate zone, oil is produced from females which have been left to stand after the fibre-producing males have been harvested[13]. A varnish is made from the pressed seeds[13]. Seed is harvested from the female plants when most of it falls off when the plant is shaken. Best time of day to harvest seed is in early morning when fruits are turgid and conditions damp. As fruits dry out by mid-day, seed loss increases due to shattering. Usually stems are cut and the seeds shaken out over canvas sheets or beaten with sticks to extract the seeds[13]. A fibre is obtained from the stem. It is strong and very durable[18] and is used in making coarse fabrics, rope etc[19][14][15][16][17][20]. Male plants produce the best fibres and they are harvested when the plants turn brown and the flowers begin to open[21][18][13]. When used for making paper the stems are harvested in the autumn and either retted or steamed until the fibres can be removed. The fibre is cooked for 2 hours or more with lye and then beaten in a ball mill or Hollander beater. The paper is off-white in colour[22]. A good companion plant for cabbages and other brassicas, it repels the cabbage white butterfly[3][23][24][25] and also secretes a volatile essence from its roots that inhibits pathogenic micro-organisms in the soil[25].

Unknown part

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

Hemp, or more appropriately cannabis since the form grown for fibre contains much less of the medicinally active compounds, has a very long history of medicinal use, though it is illegal to grow in many countries since the leaves and other parts of the plant are widely used as a narcotic drug[3]. The leaves and the resin that exudes from them are the parts mainly used, though all parts of the plant contain the active ingredients[3]. Cannabis contains a wide range of active ingredients, perhaps the most important of which is THC. The principal uses of the plant are as a pain-killer, sleep-inducer and reliever of the nausea caused by chemotherapy, whilst it also has a soothing influence in nervous disorders[3]. Although cannabis does not effect a cure for many of the problems it is prescribed to treat, it is a very safe and effective medicine for helping to reduce the symptoms of many serious diseases. For example, it relieves the MS sufferer of the distressing desire to urinate, even when the bladder is empty. As long as it is used regularly, it also greatly reduces the pressure in the eye to relieve the symptoms of glaucoma. The whole plant is anodyne, anthelmintic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diuretic, emollient, hypnotic, hypotensive, laxative, narcotic, ophthalmic and sedative[3][14][15][16][26][27][28][29][30][31]. It is used to relieve some of the unpleasant side effects suffered by people undergoing chemotherapy for cancer - in particular it is very effective in removing the feelings of nausea and indeed helps to create an appetite and positive attitude of mind which is so important to people undergoing this treatment[K]. It has also been found of use in the treatment of glaucoma[32][33][30] and relieves the distressing constant desire to urinate that is suffered by many people with multiple sclerosis. Given to patients suffering from AIDS, it helps them to put on weight[30]. Since it strongly increases the desire for food it has been found of benefit in treating anorexia nervosa. It is used externally as a poultice for corns, sores, varicose veins, gout and rheumatism[11][30]. Few plants have a greater array of folk medicine uses. Cannabis has been used in the treatment of a wide range of conditions including alcohol withdrawal, anthrax, asthma, blood poisoning, bronchitis, burns, catarrh, childbirth, convulsions, coughs, cystitis, delirium, depression, diarrhoea, dysentery, dysmenorrhoea, epilepsy, fever, gonorrhoea, gout, inflammation, insomnia, jaundice, lockjaw, malaria, mania, menorrhagia, migraine, morphine withdrawal, neuralgia, palsy, rheumatism, scalds, snakebite, swellings, tetanus, toothache, uteral prolapse, and whooping cough[13]. The seed is anodyne, anthelmintic, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative, narcotic and tonic[11]. It is used to treat constipation caused by debility or fluid retention[30]. The seed is an important source of essential fatty acids and can be very helpful in the treatment of many nervous diseases. A high content of very active antibacterial and analgesic substances has been found in the plant[34]. It has bactericidal effects on gram-positive micro-organisms, in some cases up to a dilution of 1:150,000[34].


Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Nothing listed.


Seed - sow in early spring in the greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. Seeds germinate well at low temperatures, but not below 1°C[13]. The seed can also be sown outdoors in situ in mid spring.

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Cannabis sativa. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.


Cannabis is very adaptable to soil and climatic conditions[13]. It prefers a rich loamy soil with plenty of humus[18] but it succeeds in ordinary garden soil[19] and also in calcareous soils[18]. When grown for fibre, it requires a mild temperate climate with at least 67cm annual rainfall, with abundant rain whilst the seeds are germinating and until young plants become established[13]. Cannabis thrives on rich, fertile, neutral to slightly alkaline, well-drained silt or clay loams with moisture retentive subsoils, it does not grow well on acid, sandy soils[13]. Of the many types of hemp, some are adapted to most vegetated terrains and climates[13]. Cannabis is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation range of 30 to 400cm, an average annual temperature range of 6 to 27°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.2[13]. Plants require little cultivation, except for weeding during early stages of growth. Hemp grows rapidly and soon crowds out weeds[13]. After the plants are 20 cm tall, weeding is abandoned. Hemp tends to exhaust the soil of nutrients, though some nutrients are returned to the soil after plants are harvested[13]. Hemp is commonly cultivated for its fibre, edible seed and oil in many areas of the world, it is also a socially acceptable drug in areas of Asia and the Middle East[30]. However, it is illegal to grow in Britain and many other western countries (plus Australia and New Zealand) because it contains certain narcotic principles and is a commonly used narcotic drug[24][21][30]. As Cannabis sativa has been cultivated for over 4,500 years for different purposes, many varieties and cultivars have been selected for specific purposes, as fibre, oil or narcotics. Drug-producing selections grow better and produce more drug in the tropics; oil and fibre producing plants thrive better in the temperate and subtropical areas. Many of the cultivars and varieties have been named as to the locality where it is grown mainly. However, all so called varieties freely interbreed and produce various combinations of the characters. The form of the plant and the yield of fibre from it vary according to climate and particular variety. Varieties cultivated particularly for their fibres have long stalks, branch very little, and yield only small quantities of seed. Varieties which are grown for the oil from their seed are short in height, mature early and produce large quantities of seed. Varieties grown for the drugs are short, much-branched with smaller dark-green leaves. Between these three main types of plants are numerous varieties which differ from the main one in height, extent of branching and other characteristics[13]. At least one variety has been selected for its virtually insignificant content of the narcotic principles[35]. This form is monoecious whereas most other forms are dioecious[35]. There is also said to be a tall Chinese form that has no narcotic effect[10]. However in 1999 even these varieties are illegal to grow in Britain without a special licence. Certain varieties do not form many side-shoots and these are the forms most commonly grown for their fibre[21]. Plants grown in warmer climates tend to be best for medicinal use, whilst those grown in more northerly latitudes produce the better fibre[3]. The seed is very attractive to birds and is often included in bird seed mixtures[14].


Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Cannabis sativa. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Cannabis sativa.




None listed.


None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Binomial name
Cannabis sativa
Imported References
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Hardiness Zone
Heat Zone
full sun
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
    Native Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Adapted Climate Zones
    None listed.
    Native Geographical Range
    None listed.
    Native Environment
    None listed.
    Ecosystem Niche
    None listed.
    Root Zone Tendancy
    None listed.
    Deciduous or Evergreen
    Herbaceous or Woody
    Life Cycle
    Growth Rate
    Mature Size
    2.5 x 0.8
    Flower Colour
    Flower Type

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    "image:Male hemp flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Male hemp flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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    4. ? Robert Gable Comparison of acute lethal toxicity of commonly abused psychoactive substances Addiction vol. 99 (6), p686-696 (2004/02/12)
    5. ? J.M. Walker, S.M. Huang Cannabinoid analgesia Pharmacology & Therapeutics vol. 95 (2), p127?135 (2002/08/01)
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    "image:Male hemp flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

    Facts about "Cannabis sativa"RDF feed
    Article is incompleteYes +
    Article requires citationsNo +
    Article requires cleanupYes +
    Belongs to familyCannabidaceae +
    Belongs to genusCannabis +
    Has binomial nameCannabis sativa +
    Has common nameHemp +
    Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
    Has edible partLeaves +, Unknown part + and Seed +
    Has edible useUnknown use + and Oil +
    Has fertility typeSelf sterile +
    Has flowers of typeDioecious +
    Has hardiness zone9 +
    Has imageMale hemp flowers.jpg +
    Has lifecycle typeAnnual +
    Has material partUnknown part +
    Has material useFibre +, Paper + and Repellent +
    Has mature height2.5 +
    Has mature width0.8 +
    Has medicinal partUnknown part +
    Has medicinal useAnalgesic +, Anodyne +, Anthelmintic +, Antibacterial +, Antiperiodic +, Antispasmodic +, Cancer +, Cholagogue +, Demulcent +, Diuretic +, Emmenagogue +, Emollient +, Febrifuge +, Hypnotic +, Laxative +, Narcotic +, Ophthalmic +, Sedative + and Tonic +
    Has primary imageMale hemp flowers.jpg +
    Has search namecannabis sativa + and hemp +
    Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
    Has seed requiring stratificationNo +
    Has shade toleranceNo shade +
    Has soil ph preferenceVery acid +, Acid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
    Has soil texture preferenceSandy +, Loamy + and Clay +
    Has sun preferenceFull sun +
    Has taxonomic rankSpecies +
    Has taxonomy nameCannabis sativa +
    Has water requirementsmoderate +
    Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
    PFAF cultivation notes migratedYes +
    PFAF edible use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF material use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF medicinal use notes migratedYes +
    PFAF propagation notes migratedYes +
    PFAF toxicity notes migratedYes +
    Tolerates air pollutionNo +
    Tolerates maritime exposureNo +
    Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
    Tolerates windNo +
    Has subobjectThis property is a special property in this wiki.Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa +, Cannabis sativa + and Cannabis sativa +