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Uses

Edible uses

Notes

Rhizome - raw or cooked[1]. The rhizome can be dried and ground into a powder to make bread, usually in conjunction with cereal flours[7, K]. It can also be roasted or boiled[1]. Leaves - cooked as a potherb[1]. They are very bitter[2]. The young shoots are used[2].

Leaves

Roots

Material uses

Brooms are made from the terminal panicles[3]. Plants are grown alongside irrigation canals to check soil erosion[4]. The plant can be grown as a windbreak screen[5][4]. If cut down, the culms branch and in this form the plants can be used as a hedge[6]. The leaves can be woven into mats etc, whilst the split and flattened stems are used to make screens, walls of houses etc[7][8][9][1]. A yellow dye is obtained from the pollen[10]. The stems of the plant have a multitude of applications. They are used as plant supports for vines and other climbing plants[3][4][11] and to make clarinets, bag-pipes etc[7][9][12]. They are also used as pipe stems[1], for roofing[7], to make screens, walking sticks and in basketry[13][14]. They are used to make the reeds of clarinets and organ pipes[6]. The stems can be harvested as desired at any time of the year[11]. The fibre from the stems can be used to make a good quality paper[11]. This plant is currently (1995) under investigation at Rosewarne in Cornwall as a potential commercial paper crop for small-scale industries in SW. England[K]. Because of rather high yields from natural stands, the plant has been suggested as a source of biomass for energy production[3][11]. Dry cane yields of ca 10, 15, and 20 tonnes per hectare were reported respectively from infertile, partly fertile and fertile soils[11]. According to the phytomass files annual productivity ranges from 10 to 59 tonnes per hectare, the latter figure from Westlake's (1963) estimate of 57 - 59 tonnes[11]. In addendum, Westlake cites evidence that Arundo donax can produce 40-75 MT/ha/yr. in warm temperate and tropical regions. Early vegetative growth has ME (metabolizable energy) of 2.22 megacalories/kg DM, while hay has an ME of only 1.37 (Gohl, 1981). Such annual productivity, if sustainable, makes this a notable energy candidate, especially when one considers the energy as a by-product, with leaf protein and potential pharmaceutical as primary products[11]. A particular type of cellulose is obtained from the plant[3]. In Italy, the plant is used in the manufacture of rayon[11].

Medicinal uses(Warning!)

The root is diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient and galactofuge[3]. An infusion is said to stimulate menstrual discharge and diminish milk flow[15][16]. A paste of the root is applied to the forehead to treat headaches[16]. Isolated alkaloids have been experimentally shown to raise the blood pressure and contract the intestine and uterus[15]. The rhizome or rootstock is used in the treatment of dropsy. Boiled in wine with honey, the root or rhizome has been used for treating cancer[11]. The plant contains the alkaloid gramine. This is said to be a vasopressor, raising the blood pressure in dogs after small doses, causing a fall in larger doses[11]. The stems have been used as splints for broken limbs[10].

Ecology

Ecosystem niche/layer

Ecological Functions

Hedge


Windbreak


Earth stabiliser

Forage

Nothing listed.

Shelter

Nothing listed.

Propagation

Seed - surface sow in a greenhouse in February to April. Stand the pots in about 3cm of water to keep the soil moist until the seed germinates. It usually germinates in 1 - 3 months at 15°c[17]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Once they are 20cm or more tall, plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in spring[5]. Whilst large divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, we have found that it is best to pot the divisions up and keep them in light shade in a greenhouse until they are rooting away well. Stem cuttings, placed in water, root easily[5].

Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Arundo donax. Help us fill in the blanks! Edit this page to add your knowledge.



Cultivation

Prefers a moist fertile soil in a sunny sheltered position, preferably by water[5][17][18]. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.5 to 8.3. Plants can be grown as a specimen in lawns etc, succeeding in quite coarse grass[19]. Plants are succeeding in a site that is very exposed to maritime winds at Rosewarne in Cornwall[K]. Adapted to tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates of the World, Giant reed is often found on sand dunes near seashores. It tolerates some salt. It grows best along river banks and in other wet places, and is best developed in poor sandy soil and in sunny situations. Said to tolerate all types of soils, from heavy clays to loose sands and gravelly soils. Ranging from Cool Temperate Wet through Tropical Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones, giant reed is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 30 to 400cm, an average annual temperature range of 9 to 28.5°C and a pH in the range of 5.0 to 8.7[11]. One report says that this plant is only hardy in the milder areas of Britain[5] whilst another report says that it is hardy to between -5 and -10°c[18]. This contradicts with the hardiness zone rating of 6 which would make the plant hardy in most areas of Britain[18]. Plants thrive outdoors at Oxford Botanical Gardens[19] as well as at Hilliers Arboretum in Hampshire and the RHS Gardens in Surrey[K]. Extensively cultivated in S. Europe for basket making etc[8]. Plants rarely if ever flower in British gardens233]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[19].

Crops

Problems, pests & diseases

Associations & Interactions

There are no interactions listed for Arundo donax. Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? edit this page to add it.

Polycultures & Guilds

There are no polycultures listed which include Arundo donax.

Descendants

Cultivars

Varieties

None listed.

Subspecies

None listed.

Full Data

This table shows all the data stored for this plant.

Taxonomy
Binomial name
Arundo donax
Genus
Arundo
Family
Gramineae
Imported References
Edible uses
Medicinal uses
Botanic
Propagation
Cultivation
Environment
Cultivation
Uses
Edible uses
None listed.
Material uses
None listed.
Medicinal uses
None listed.
Functions & Nature
Provides forage for
Provides shelter for
Environment
Hardiness Zone
6
Heat Zone
?
Water
high
Sun
full sun
Shade
no shade
Soil Texture
Soil Water Retention
Environmental Tolerances
  • Strong wind
Ecosystems
Native Climate Zones
None listed.
Adapted Climate Zones
None listed.
Native Geographical Range
None listed.
Native Environment
None listed.
Ecosystem Niche
None listed.
Root Zone Tendancy
None listed.
Life
Deciduous or Evergreen
?
Herbaceous or Woody
?
Life Cycle
Growth Rate
?
Mature Size
6 x 4
Fertility
?
Pollinators
?
Flower Colour
?
Flower Type

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"image:Illustration Arundo donax0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. "image:Illustration Arundo donax0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.


"image:Illustration Arundo donax0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

"image:Illustration Arundo donax0.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

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References

  1. ? 1.01.11.21.31.41.51.61.71.8 Coyle. J. and Roberts. N. C. A Field Guide to the Common and Interesting Plants of Baja California. Natural History Publishing Co. (32202/01/01)
  2. ? 2.02.12.22.32.4 Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books ISBN 3874292169 (32202/01/01)
  3. ? 3.03.13.23.33.43.53.6 Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald ISBN 0-356-10541-5 (32202/01/01)
  4. ? 4.04.14.24.3 Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. ()
  5. ? 5.05.15.25.35.45.5 F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press (32202/01/01)
  6. ? 6.06.16.2 Hitchcock. A. S. Manual of the Grasses of the United States Dover Publications. New York. ISBN 0-486-22717-0 (32202/01/01)
  7. ? 7.07.17.27.3 Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim (32202/01/01)
  8. ? 8.08.18.28.3 ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press (32202/01/01)
  9. ? 9.09.19.2 Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable ISBN 0094579202 (32202/01/01)
  10. ? 10.010.110.210.3 Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-453-9 (32202/01/01)
  11. ? 11.0011.0111.0211.0311.0411.0511.0611.0711.0811.0911.1011.1111.12 Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - (32202/01/01)
  12. ? 12.012.1 Haywood. V. H. Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-217674-9 ()
  13. ? 13.013.1 Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press ISBN 0192176218 (32202/01/01)
  14. ? 14.014.1 Farrelly. D. The Book of Bamboo Sierra Club. ISBN 0-87156-825-X (32202/01/01)
  15. ? 15.015.115.2 Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. (32202/01/01)
  16. ? 16.016.116.2 Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-527-6 (32202/01/01)
  17. ? 17.017.1 Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. (32202/01/01)
  18. ? 18.018.118.218.3 Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press ISBN 0-333-47494-5 (32202/01/01)
  19. ? 19.019.119.2 Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. ISBN 0 460 86048 8 (32202/01/01)


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Facts about "Arundo donax"RDF feed
Article is incompleteYes +
Article requires citationsNo +
Article requires cleanupYes +
Belongs to familyGramineae +
Belongs to genusArundo +
Functions asHedge +, Windbreak + and Earth stabiliser +
Has common nameGiant Reed +
Has drought toleranceIntolerant +
Has edible partLeaves + and Roots +
Has edible useCooked + and Flour +
Has environmental toleranceHigh wind +
Has flowers of typeHermaphrodite +
Has hardiness zone6 +
Has imageIllustration Arundo donax0.jpg +
Has lifecycle typePerennial +
Has material partUnknown part +
Has material useBasketry +, Biomass +, Broom +, Dye +, Musical +, Paper +, Pipes +, Plant support +, Thatching + and Weaving +
Has mature height6 +
Has mature width4 +
Has medicinal partUnknown part +
Has medicinal useDiaphoretic +, Diuretic +, Emollient +, Galactofuge + and Hypotensive +
Has primary imageIllustration Arundo donax0.jpg +
Has search namearundo donax + and x +
Has seed requiring scarificationNo +
Has seed requiring stratificationNo +
Has shade toleranceNo shade +
Has soil ph preferenceAcid +, Neutral +, Alkaline + and Very alkaline +
Has soil teclayture preferenceClay +
Has soil teloamyture preferenceLoamy +
Has soil tesandyture preferenceSandy +
Has soil water retention preferenceWell drained +
Has sun preferenceFull sun +
Has taxonomy nameArundo donax +
Has water requirementshigh +
Is taxonomy typeSpecies +
Tolerates air pollutionNo +
Tolerates maritime exposureNo +
Tolerates nutritionally poor soilNo +
Tolerates windYes +